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Sustainable Timber Farming

                                                                           

” Commercial Forestry” is much like any other farming practice. The crops are considered a renewable resource, used to make sawn timber, pulp, paper, poles, mining timber , matches, charcoal and cellulose – based  products. Specific species of trees are planted, harvested and replanted in sustainable rotation. This ensures that there are trees at various stages of growth and maturity, ready to harvest for generations to come.

Forestry is more than the science of planting, managing and caring for timber plantations. It’s also about looking after the landscape which timber share with other animal and plant species as well as the people and communities that the Foresting and Forest Products Industries touches.

LOGGING

Logging is the process of cutting down and removing trees from the forest. In forestry, the phrase is used to describe log making, which includes cutting the branches off, removing the bark and cutting trees into parts. In some cases, logging may refer to the whole logistical process of felling, processing, removing and transporting trees from the forest to the sawmill.

LOGGING IMPORTANCE

Below are reasons why logging is important:

1. Minimizes competition for resources – Logging is important because it reduces crowding in the forest. Crowded trees must compete for nutrients such as sunlight and water. The younger and shorter trees may not receive the sunlight they need because of the overcrowding of the older trees.

2. Boosts the health of the trees –  Logging can keep trees healthy. When logging, the parts of trees that have diseases are removed and the remaining trees can grow without the threat of any disease.

3. Provides necessary raw materials – Trees are a raw material and is important for our survival. They are useful in making furniture, supply materials for building homes, and are useful for making many everyday items. All of these things require logging.

4. Reduces forest fires – Logging helps to reduce forest fires. If there’s a lightning – triggered fire in a crowded forest, fire will spread rapidly, unlike when the trees have been thinned.

5. Enhances undergrowth – Selective logging is important, as it allows more sunlight and air to reach the forest floor, encouraging the growth of vegetation under larger trees.

Assistance for small – scale timber operations

The timber industry falls under the Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (Daff), and to assist small – scale timber operations, the department has established the Forestry Enterprise Development (FED) Programme. The aim of the FED programme is to create opportunities for people to utilize forests indigenous forests, woodlands and plantations and forest – based resources for economic growth, income generation/ job creation in a manner that will take people from a subsistence livelihood system into the market economy

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How to start a Kota Business?

                                                                  

 

Almost everyone in South Africa loves a Kota / Bunny Chow. There is a huge demand for this product in South Africa and they are sold at almost every township.

You can operate this kind of business from a shack, container or a professional space depending on Where you want to start and operate your business from. Containers work fine if operating at a township or cbd. You will need operating premises, equipment, some utilities and stock. Equipment that you will need include:

  • Deep Fryer.

  • Potato Chipper.

  • Frying Pans.

  • Fridge and

  • Microwave.

Stock

A traditional Kota usually consists of Bread, Polony, Mangola, Atchar, Vienna, Cheese and Eggs. A modern Kota will also include things like lettuce and bacon amongst others. Decide which ingredients you will use on your Kota menu and buy them from wholesalers at lower prices and not from huge retail stores.

Marketing

You need to make potential customers aware that you are selling Kota products. Set up your Kota business in a visible area and then brand it to attract customers. To attract customers and make your business competitive offer and provide excellent customer service. Ensure you only sell high quality products that your customers will like and come back for more. Word – of – Mouth advertising will work better if customers are satisfied.

Kota business is a profitable venture in South Africa and does not require huge start up capital. The number of Kotas you sell will determine the profitability of your Kota business. Market your business properly and you are sure to get a large share of customers.

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DATES FRUIT FARMING

                                                         c

Commercial dates farming business is growing day by day. “Phoenix dactylifera” known as date or date palm, is actually a flowering plant species in the palm family, Arecaceae. It is cultivated for it’s edible sweet fruit. Dates are the biggest oasis and desert cash crop. They are harvested from the palm trees and dried out in the sun and stored for the wintertime when they supply food for a family and assist herds of camels, goats and sheep.
Date palm is the oldest tree cultivated on earth. They are a excellent source of calcium, sugar, iron and potassium. They are also used in many social and religious festivals. They have many health benefits like relive constipation, reduce heart disease, control diarrhea and help in pregnancy. It is also used for making different products such as chutney, pickles, jam, juice, and other bakery items.

SOIL

It can be cultivated in any soil, don’t have any specific requirement. But for good growth and yield, it required well drained, deep sandy loam soil with a pH in the range of 7-8. Avoid soils having a hard pan up to 2meter below soil layer. Saline and alkaline soils are also suitable for cultivation but yield obtained is low.

PROPAGATION

Propagation of the date palm is done with the help of suckers as propagation with seeds is impractical. Select suckers or offshoots from the mother plant. Suckers are obtained from 4 or 5th year after planting. Ideal weight of suckers should be 15 – 20kg.

DATE CULTIVARS

The most popular variety in South Africa is the “Medjool Date”. Other popular varieties are Barhi, Deglet Noor, Sayer and Zahdi.

GROWTH

It normally take a date palm almost 2 years to be ready to plant out into the field. Another 4 years to produce a reasonable crop and up to 12 years to reach full production of 80kg and more per tree. Production can go on for 100 years but does decline around 50 years.
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CANNABIS & HEMP FARMING

                                                 

HEMP – a low type of  Cannabis sativa with a low level of the Unnibinoid THC – is a wind – pollinated, annual broad-leaf plant with a taproot. It is cultivated for its production of long fibers for textiles, hemp seeds for oil and other uses. 

Most of Africa’s climate is favorable to cannabis cultivation. The plant likes warm and sunny weather and does not do so well in the cold. Certain cannabis strains can also thrive in extreme heat. Some growing techniques such as dry farming allows farmers to grow the crop using mostly rainfall with minimal additional watering if the climate conditions are right. Drip irrigation is also a cheap and efficient way to water cannabis crops in Africa.

The cannabis plant grows in stages. First come the initial germination and seeding. Then, the plant enters the vegetative phase and produces most of its leaves and branches. After several weeks, the plant can enter the flowering stage. If the plant is a male plant, it will grow pollen sacks. If it is a female plant, it will produce flowers (buds) that can be smoked or processed into tinctures and oils.

Up until 29/10/2021, it was illegal to grow hemp in SA. After careful consideration, the Minister of Agriculture, Land Reform and Rural Development announced the opening of the application process for Hemp and Cannabis permits. This means that Agripreneurs/farmers are now able to apply for a permit to farm hemp and cannabis as an “agricultural” crop.

ARE HEMP AND CANNABIS THE SAME THING?

Hemp and Cannabis (marijuana) are not the same things. Although they fall under the same genus, Cannabis, Hemp (Cannabis savita L) is very much for “industrial ” or agricultural use, whereas marijuana (also known as dagga) can be used for “medicinal” or recreational purposes. The following options are available for interested agripreneurs/farmers:

  • Cannabis farmer – growing and cultivating hemp.
  • CBD or Hemp manufacturer – this could include producing CBD Oils or Hemp textiles.
  • CBD or Hemp product developer – creating products using CBD Oils or Hemp textiles.
  • Hemp or CBD product distributor – selling CBD or Hemp products to consumers.

SOIL PREPARATION

Hemp and Cannabis grows best in well – drained loam soil with a pH of between 6 and 7.5 with abundant organic matter – at least 3,5%. Dense, poorly- drained clay soil is not suitable and sandy soil’s need for extra irrigation and fertilization may be uneconomical. Seedbed preparation is important; firm and fine is best in order to plant hemp/cannabis seeds between 203 cm deep. Hemp is sensitive to frost during germination and requires water during the first 6 weeks after planting.

HARVESTING

Harvesting hemp for fiber is easier than harvesting hemp for the hemp seed. To harvest hemp grown for fiber, implements used for the harvesting of forage crops can be used, which perform well without major modifications. A straight sickle mower is the most suitable for harvesting hemp for textile applications. This implement leaves cut stems intact, laid neatly and organized directly on the ground. Haybines do not work well as the long stems wrap on the reel. Cut no shorter than 10cm above the soil surface.

                                          

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Sustainable Tarragon Farming

                                                          

Tarragon belongs to the sunflower family and it is species of the perennial herb. Tarragon is a much – favored culinary herb plant, with leaves have a slight anise flavor. There are mainly two types of Tarragon. The French Tarragon one is more widely available and has a stronger flavor than the Russian variety. The French Tarragon is the more popular variety and should be planted in a place where you can easily manipulate the soil and control the temperature levels and amounts of water it receives.

Tarragon provides fragrant leaves that can be harvested and preserved for cooking year – round. Grow Tarragon in well – drained, sandy loam soil. It will tolerate poor and nearly dry soil. Tarragon does not grow well in cold, wet, or compacted soil. Tarragon plants prefers a soil pH level of 6.0 to 7.3 and it does not grow well in acidic soil.

PROPAGATION

For the French variety, propagation must come from the root division or stem cuttings, as the seeds are sterile  which means they’re not viable for planting. French Tarragon plants don’t propagate by using Tarragon seeds, but rather through stem cuttings or root system division. Usually, the French Tarragon plant can only be grown by propagation or by buying an establish plant.

PLANTING

Remove the soil in an area slightly deeper than the root ball, and twice as wide. Amend the soil with plenty of organic material such as mature compost, worm castings, or well- rotted manure, some liquid – retaining material like perlite or peat moss, and a couple of tablespoons bone meal. Set the root ball in place, fill in the hole, and then cover the crown with the defamed soil, then firm in place. Water gently to settle.

WATERING

Water requirements for your Tarragon will mainly depend on the weather conditions and the maturity of the plant. These plants can cope in dry ground, and care must be taken not to over-water as this will diminish growth and flavor intensity.

It requires 5 to 6 weeks after transplant to harvesting.

                                                 

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Chickpea Farming

                             

Chickpea is one of the field crops which is not grown widely in our country. Unimproved chickpeas are grown as hedge plants in home gardens in few parts of some Provinces such as Mpumalanga and Limpopo.

Planting

Chickpeas are usually grown as winter crops, between late April and May. The proper seeding depth is 2,5 to 5cm. Chickpeas should be sown in moist soils to provide the necessary moisture for proper germination and inoculation.

Soil

The plant requires fertile, sandy-loam soil with good internat drainage and they do not tolerate water – logged conditions. Chickpeas require a soil pH of 6.0 0 7.0. It prefers soil with good residual soil moisture content or storage.

Product Benefits

Chickpeas are high in protein, carbohydrates and fibre, low in fat and cholesterol and are considered one of the earliest cultivated vegetables. They are consumed as a dry pulse crop or  as green vegetables, Chickpeas are added to many dishes to improve their taste, e.g. desert, salads, and soup. When mixed with other pulses, they can also serve as an appetizer.

Harvesting

Chickpeas are typically straight out, meaning they are not swathed before combining. Timing is very important when harvesting chickpeas. An over ripened crop can lead to a decrease in yield while harvesting a crop too young may lead to increased chance of green seed in crop which yields a lower grade.

Watering

Chickpeas can tolerate droughts very well, being the most resistant to shortage of water. The only time there is a greater need for water is when buds form during flowering.

Harvesting

Fortunately, chickpeas ripen uniformly, so it is easy to determine when to chop, given that its pods do not shoot when ripe. Harvesting is done by machines, i.e. adapted grain bean harvesters.

                     

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Bush Bean Farming

                                            

Beans come in one of two types – bush beans and pole beans. Bush Beans differ from pole beans in the fact that bush beans don’t need any kind of support to stay upright. Pole Beans, on the other hand, need a pole or some other support to stay upright. Bush Beans are shorter beans that only grow to about 2 feet in height, while pole beans grow to about 8 – 10 feet in height.

Bush Beans can be further broken down into 3 types:

  1. snap beans – pods are eaten.

  2. green shelling beans – beans are eaten green.

  3. dry beans – beans are dried and then rehydrated before eating.

SOIL

Beans grow best in full sun, planted in well – drained and warm soil. Prepare soil ahead of time. When planting, add a mature or aged compost and this should be all the fertilizer you need if you are starting with a healthy soil. Beans will do best with a soil PH of 5,5 – 5,8. Beans are very sensitive to acidic soils.

PLANTING

Plant beans anytime between 10 – 28 days before the last frost date and 80 – 133 days before the first frost date. Sow beans where they are to grow, their supports, or, for bush types, four to 6 inches (10 – 15cm) apart with 18 inches (45cm) spacing between rows. Bush Beans should be planted in linear rows to support each other. Use a hoe to scratch out rows or dig individual planting holes with a trowel. Drop in two to three seeds per hole, so they fall about an inch (2cm) apart, and are two inches (2,5cm – 5cm) deep.

WATERING

Water in the morning so the plants can dry rapidly and avoid fungal disease. Water moderately to 1/2 inch of water per week, avoid watering the plant tops. Beans require a minimum of 400 to 500mm rain fall during its rowing season but totals of 600 – 650mm is considered ideal. 

 CROP ROTATION

After harvesting your beans, plant your cabbages on the same field, as beans leave a lot of nitrogen in the soil and this will help you harvest healthy and big cabbages.

                                             

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SAFFRON PRODUCTION

                                                     

Saffron is collected from the blossoms of Crocus sativus(Iridaceae) commonly known as saffron crocus or saffron bulbs. It is propagated by bulbs called corms. Each corm forms new bulbs, and this is how the plant multiplies. The process is tedious and meticulous. This explains why saffron spice came to be so precious as to be called the “red gold”.

SOIL

The Crocus  sativus grows in many different soil types but thrives best in calcareous, humus – rich and well-drained soil with a pH between 6 and 8. Saffron corms can also  grown in dry or semi-dry soil types. However, you need to keep in mind that during periods of drought in autumn and spring, you need to be able to irrigate the land. If you plant the saffron corms in wet or semi-wet soil types you must be sure that your land is well – drained to prevent corms from rotting or getting infected during periods of wet weather.

PLANTING

When planting saffron virgin patch of land, corms for the first time, choose a virgin patch of land, that is, no other tubers or saffron corms have been planted there before, if possible. Before planting, it is advisable to till the soil 20 to 50 centimetres deep to keep the planting beds loose and well – aired, incorporating organic fertilizer during the process. Saffron crocuses are sun- worshipping plants so they love to be planted in the dry open fields rather than in the shade.

WEED CONTROL

Mulching will control the weed growth to some extent. Plants should be mulched with saw dust. Weedicides can be used to check the complete weeds in the saffron field.

FERTILIZERS

Farmers should apply about 35 tonnes of well decomposed farm yard manure in the field before planting. Annual fertilizer application of 20kg “N”, 30 kg “K” and 80kg “P” per h/a is beneficial in autumn and again  immediately after flowering.

YIELD

Generally,  150 to 160 Saffron flowers are needed to make 1 gram of dried saffron. Usually, during the 1st year of plantation 60 -65% of corms will produce 1 flower each and in the subsequent years each corm will produce about 2 flowers.

BENEFITS

Saffron is being used in culinary as well as medicines. Saffron is mainly used in culinary seasoning and to get colour, cottage cheese, Biryanis, meats, liquors, cordials, cakes, confectioneries, breads and Mughlai dishes. Saffron is used commercially in perfumes  and cosmetics. When it comes to medicinal use, Saffron is used in fevers, Ayurvedic treatment to  heal arthritis, impotence and infertility. 

       

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HEALTH CARE SERVICES

                                                   

Many public and private hospitals are running these days and fulfilling the needs of the society and generating income. Still, the need for more hospitals and healthcare services are increasing day by day. Specialized hospitals in any medical field are also working in the health care industry like children hospitals etc. The healthcare industry is also becoming selective in the hiring of new employees as they are focusing on trained and specialized staff for the hospital. Starting a hospital is a good idea and a secure investment.  

A hospital business is a technical venture and need proper planning and a strategy. You can’t merely buy a place and hire doctors to start the venture. You must know the number of people you are targeting for the hospital because it will help to develop the strategy. It is important to take advice and help from the experts so that you won’t ignore the basic issues.

The business of hospitals and health care organizations is one of the most emerging industries and globally adopted by people from all over the world. It is a profitable as well as a long – term stable business. As we know health is an essential need of the society, hence the importance of health management services and organizations can never be underestimated.

Starting a new healthcare venture requires a thorough understanding of the national/government as well as public policy. You need to understand how people deal with the matters related to health and what are their requirements.

Health care services and new hospitals are one of the fastest expanding industries in the world. Its growth depends upon the needs of society. The wealth and development of a nation are dependent upon its health.

Healthcare service providers or organizations are a very serious concern in every part of the world. In fact, the healthcare industry consumes a vast amount of a country’s budget because providing the best health care services to people is the most important task.

                                                               

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START A FOOD TRUCK BUSINESS

                                              

A food truck business can simply be classified as a restaurant on the go (mobile restaurant) . A Food Truck is essentially a large truck that is equipped with the necessary gadgets to cook and conveniently sell foods. It is a business venture that has come to stay; a business that is gaining momentum as the years roll by.

Food Trucks are more popular today than ever before. You’ve likely seen them at festivals, birth day parties, weddings, and other special events. In addition, since the Covid – 19 pandemic began, many patrons opt for grabbing meals from food trucks instead of visiting restaurants.

While the restaurant industry has grown about 2% in recent years, food trucks have skyrocketed at an annual growth rate of 8%. The food truck craze shows no sign of slowing down as people view food trucks as a fun and affordable way to try new foods.

More and more people are realizing the growth of this industry and pursuing their own food truck ventures as a result. Here’s why: they require a much smaller initial investment than a restaurant.

While a food truck is typically easier and more affordable to start and operate than a restaurant, it does take some time and effort to ensure success. There are certain strategies that can help you stand out from other food trucks, gain new customers, retain loyal ones, and maximize your profits.

Also, while there may already be a lot of food truck business ideas in your neighbourhood, the market for food trucks is far from saturated. There’s still an idea floating around your community that no one has pursued. It’s something worth exploring. It’s less risky than trying to open a (brick – and – mortar) business or something on a greater scale. Even if you don’t end up being successful with a truck, you could flip it and sell it or you could try something new.

                                                     

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MAIZE FARMING & PRODUCTION

                                     

Maize is the most important grain crop in South Africa, being both the major feed grain and the staple food for the majority of the South Africa population. About 60% of the maize produced in South Africa is white and the other 40% is yellow maize. Yellow maize is mostly used for animal feed production while white maize is primarily produced for human consumption.

PRODUCTION

Maize is planted from October to December, after enough rain has fallen to let the seed germinate. There is a great variation in planting time between the eastern and western production regions, because of differences in temperatures, rainfall and the duration of the growing season. It can take anything between 90 to 120 days for maize to grow to its harvest period, depending on the variety and climatic conditions.

HARVESTING

Maize can be harvested by hand with a sickle, but are harvested with machines on commercial farms where farmers need to harvest hundreds of hectares within a specific time. Maize is generally left in the field until the moisture percentages reach between 12,5% to 14%, but it can be harvested with a dry matter content of 30 – 38% if it will be used to make silage.

SOIL

Maize needs a dry soil in the spring, but not a soil type that will dry out too much in late spring when the young plants are developing. Growing maize on heavy, day – type soils is probably the biggest handicap when trying to get the best out of this crop because of the difficulty in creating the correct seed – bed in the spring. Medium loams that are easy to work with in the spring, free-draining and will warm up early in the season to enable the young plants to get the best possible start are the most favoured. Very free-draining and light sandy soils can be too extreme.

CROP NUTRITION

Nitrogen is the driver and a lot of crops just don’t get enough because of an over- estimation of what  the slurry can provide.

Maize requires:

  • 180 kg/ha of potash.

  • 40 kg/ha of phosphate.

  • 150 kg/ha of Nitrogen.

Ideally, the application of nitrogen should be split with 75% in the seedbed and the remaining 25% applied at the 1-3 leaf stage. This will help the crop get through its yellow phase often seen at emergence.

                                               

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How sustainable is Amaranth Farming?

                                   

Amaranthus or Amaranth or Amaranths is one of the oldest warm climate leafy vegetable crops grown since centuries. At present Amaranth is extensively grown as a green leafy vegetable in many temperate and tropical regions in the world.

Amaranth is a wonderfully versatile plant that’s a beautiful flower, a delicious vegetable, and a nutritious grain all in one. It even has medicinal qualities. Amaranth has a high nutrient value and is a popular super food worldwide. Because it can withstand harsh climatic conditions, it is also an attractive crop to farm.

World demand for amaranth has sky- rocketed since the 1970’s due to a growing awareness of its health properties, including that it is gluten free. The grain can be milled into flour and the leaves can be eaten like greens.

CLIMATE

Generally, the plant prefers warm weather. However, you can also grow amaranth in the temperate climate during summer. Actually, the plant has efficient photosynthetic abilities and responds best in full sunlight. Additionally, the crop is resistant to drought thus it does not require as much moisture as other crops.

SOIL

Generally, growing amaranth is possible on all types of soil. However, the loam soil is most suitable for its cultivation. Fine seedbed is necessary for this crop and you can prepare a suitable bed by repeated plowing.

PLANTATION

You can grow the crop both in the summer and rainy seasons and in the temperate zone, you can start the plantation before 6 to 8 weeks of the last frost. The seeds of this crop are very small and is sown in flatbeds after mixing those with fine soil for good distribution.

You can transplant the seedlings after raising them in the nursery during the rainy season at a spacing of 45cm from row to row and 30cm from plant to plant. You will need about one kilogram of seed for sowing one acre.

HARVESTING

You can start harvesting when the plants turn yellow or deep brown in color. Growing Amaranth is a very lucrative opportunity for farmers and entrepreneurs that have sufficient land. Within a short duration of time, you can expect a good return from this business.

                                      

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CLEOME FARMING?

                     

Cleome (Cleome gynandra) is a widespread herb that occurs in South Africa from Limpopo to Namibia. Cleome gynandra is a species of Cleome that is used as a green vegetable. It is known by many common names like Shona cabbage, African cabbage, spiderwisp, cat’s whiskers, chin saga, and stinkweed.

Cleome belongs to the Capparaceae family. This herbaceous, erect, and annual plant grows to a height of between 0,5m and 1,5m, depending on the environment. It is a branched plant, sometimes becoming woody with age.

TEMPERATURE

Cleome is sensitive to cold and does not grow well when temperatures drop below 15ºC. It grows well when the temperature is above 27ºC. Because of its tropical origin, cleome is believed to be day-length – insensitive, but some cleome species are facultative long – day species (not restricted to a particular function).

SOIL REQUIREMENTS

Cleome prefers well – drained medium – textured soils and does not grow well in poorly drained or heavy clay soils. It also prefers sandy loam soils, rich in organic matter and responds well to well – decomposed manure. Flowering is delayed when adequate manure is available, allowing more larger leaves to develop.

PLANTING

Seeds are planted at a shallow depth to ensure emergence and a good field stand. Plant seeds in seed beds or plant directly in rows in the field. Mix seeds 1:10 with sand or dry soil before planting.

IRRIGATION

Water requirements vary with the crop’s growth stage, soil type, and weather conditions (hot or cold). Frequent irrigation will be required for sandy soils as these drain quickly. Clay soils, on the other hand, drain quite slowly and hold more water than sandy soils.

HARVESTING

Harvest Maturity

Leaves: Cleome is harvested in summer during the first rains and can be harvested until autumn. Leaf harvesting starts four to six weeks after seeding emergence and it may last four to five weeks.

Seeds: Seeds can be harvested when pods are fully ripe and yellow but before they open naturally to prevent shattering.

                                                       

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Why Pumpkin Farming?

                            

Pumpkins are grown yearly in South Africa. Pumpkins are being produced countrywide in South Africa with the main areas being: Mpumalanga, Vryburg, Western Cape, and Vereniging. About 40 000 h/a of pumpkins are grown yearly in South Africa. 

CULTIVARS

Recommended cultivars are:

  1. Carving – Autumn Gold, Gost Rider – takes 90 days to mature.

  2. Small / Pie Type – Amish Pie, small sugar – takes 90 days to mature.

  3. Giant Pumpkin – Big Max, Big Moon – takes 120 days to mature.

Growers supplying wholesale markets want heavy and uniformly sized pumpkins with strong, dark – colored stems and a deep, bright colour. Growers should keep track of the many new varieties of pumpkins available each year, consider the market, and plant varieties that are best suited to their operations.

SOIL REQUIREMENTS

Pumpkins grow well and produced excellent quality fruit in rich, light – textured soils. Sandy loam or well-drained loamy fertile soils, ideally deeper than 1000mm, are ideal for pumpkins. However, heavier soils can also be used as long as the drainage is adequate. The optimum soil pH is between 6 and 7.5.

PLANTING

Planting on a raised bed promotes drainage, so the roots do not have to deal with constant wetness, which leads to disease problems. The seeds can be planted directly in the site where they will mature. Pumpkins are usually planted in hills. Plant two to three seeds per hill about 2,5cm deep and later thin to one plant per hill.

FERTILIZATION

The plants respond to liberal dressings of manure and compost, which also help the soil to retain moisture. Pumpkins appreciate to be treated generously throughout their growth period. Good feeding for pumpkins is liquid manure applied at intervals of 2 – 3 weeks, starting when the first flower buds open.

HARVESTING

Most pumpkins reach maturity at 3 or 4 months after sowing. The fruit is harvested when the skin becomes hard and lose its shiny appearance.

                                          

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How to set up Cherry Farming

        

Cherry trees can only be grown in certain areas of South Africa. They prefer cold winters and don’t like hot summers, wind and frost. In addition, cherry trees are sensitive to root phytophthora and boll-worm. Birds love cherries and can devour up to 10% of the harvest. Growing cherries under netting is a solution to this problem.

Cherries are a crop with short harvest season. The cherry harvest in South Africa starts from week 41 – the second week in October, and ends around week 51 – the end of December, but certain varieties and late harvesting in some areas can extend the season into mid January.

Cherries are used to make cherry liqueurs and wines. Other cherry products such as cherry sauces, jams, canned and glazed cherries are also produced in South Africa. Dried, powered, freeze- dried and powered cherries in capsules are also available. But cherry concentrate (for juice etc) is imported.

Cherry Cultivars

Sweet cherry farming in South Africa started with the planting of cherry cultivars such as Early River, Early Red Five, Giant Heidelfinger and Bing. There are a large number of cherry varieties planted in South Africa, these include Royal Hazel, Royal Dawn, Royal Lynn, Royal Edie and Royal Helen. The most popular one grown by an individual producer is the red flavorful newcomer Royal Hazel. This is a variety with a good shelf life, is suitable for shipping and is already making up 10% of South Africa’s total plantings, of just under 390h/a. Other cherry cultivars also planted on large scale include Royal Edie and Royal Helen.

Harvesting

Cherries are a non – climacteric fruit – this means it is picked fully ripe and does not ripen further after harvesting. Cherry – picking is labor intensive as it needs  to be hand – picked with the stems intact. An orchard will be picked up to 6 times in a season. Harvested cherries need to be cooled to 0,5°C as soon as possible; this is often done using a hydro-cooler.

                 

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Sustainable Shallot Farming

                 

Shallots (Eschalots) are members of the alium family, closely related to onions, garlic and chives. Shallot bulbs grow in clusters, similar to cloves of garlic. The biggest distinction between shallots and other onions, besides their milder flavor, is their cellular structure. Shallots break down much more easily when cooked, allowing for a softer level of caramelization, or a more subtle touch when creating a foundation in sources etc.

Shallots are packed with micro-nutrients such as magnesium, potassium, zinc, and B vitamins. It increase your intake of micro – nutrients, protein and fiber. Shallot differs from the everyday onion in some fundamental ways:

Firstly – Shallots grows like garlic, in clusters rather than single bulbs.

Secondly – Shallots has a softer flavor, bringing all the essence of an onion without the punch.

Thirdly – Shallots is smaller and a little more oval – shaped.

Soil

Fertile, well – drained soil with compost dug in. In clay soil, use raised beds or rows.

Spacing

Single Plants – 15cm each way (minimum).

Rows – 10cm with 15cm row gap (minimum).

Planting

Easiest to sow as sets (tiny bulbs) which are planted direct into the soil from early winter onward. Can also be grown from seed in which case start in pots under cover in late winter before planting out mid spring.

Harvesting

It usually takes 2 months for the shallots to be ready for harvest. One signal that the bulb had reached its maturity is when the top part of the plant withers. Harvested shallots should be stored in cool places and it is advised that you put them inside a mesh or any other breathable storage,

Shallot farming is a profitable business due to the fact that it is not hard to plant and to maintain and is also in demand in the market. Shallots do not require a specific kind of climate to grow and can even grow healthy in a garden directly exposed to sunlight or shaded.

            

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How to start profitable pea farming?

      

Scientific Name – Pisum sativum L

Common Names – Matar (Hindi, Nepali) Pea, split pea, garden pea, seed pea, shelling pea. combining pea, field pea, dry pea, vining pea.

Family Name – Fabaceae

Commercially peas are grown almost in all parts of the cooler areas of South Africa, particularly in KZN, Brits and Rustenburg in North West, and in the Mpumalanga Lowveld. The pea is a green, pod-shaped vegetable, widely grown as a cool – season vegetable crop. There are generally three types of peas that are commonly eaten:

  1. Garden or Green Peas (Pisum sativum).

  2. Snow Peas (Pisum sativum var, macrocarpon).

  3. Snap Peas (Pisum sativum var, macrocarpon ser. cv).

Soil Requirements

Peas can be grown on all types of soil but it prefers well- drained sandy loam soils.The soils should be rich in organic matter as it enhances better growth by supplying nutrients at a slower rate. It does not thrive in highly acidic or alkaline soils or saline type of soils. It grows best at a pH of 6.5. If the pH is less than 6.0, then then it should be amended to improve the soil conditions.

Soil Preparation

The field should be well prepared by 2 or 3 ploughings. The soil should not be much pulverized and fine. However, it must be free from weeds and stuble of the kharif crop grown earlier. Well- decomposed farmyard manure at 25 to 30 t/ha along with 100kg dolomite per hectare should be applied during final ploughing.

Planting

Peas are normally sown directly where they are to grow to maturity, but they can also be sown early in pots, in a greenhouse, to bring on plants for planting out. Otherwise sow early March, second sowing in April, third sowing in May and late sowing using early varieties in June or even into early July.

Spacing

Garden pea is sown rather densely, with plant densities up to 80 plants per square metre. The seed should be sown 4 to 7cm deep. Approximately 60 to 200 kg/ha of seed is required. Plant peas 3 to 5cm deep and 2cm apart in single or double rows. Allow 46 to 60cm between single or pairs of rows. Allow 20 to 25cm between double rows in pairs.

Harvesting

Harvesting period: 58 to 74 days, depending on the variety and growing conditions (soil, temperature, and moisture).

     

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How to start Fennel Farming

                            

Fennel is an evergreen perennial which is usually grown as an annual in South Africa. However, in frost free regions fennel can be treated as a short lived perennial. In the cooler regions of South Africa, fennel seed can be sown from spring to autumn.

Because hot temperatures and humidity tend to induce bolting, in the rest of the country fennel is an excellent intermediate to cool season crop, sown in late summer or early spring before the weather gets too hot.

The fennel plants need to grow fast in order to produce the best quality bulbs and leaves so the beds need to be well prepared with lots of added compost or manure and a dressing of organic 2.3.2. Funnel crops sown in autumn may take up to 20 weeks to mature.

Planting

* Plant fennel seeds 1 to 3cm deep.

* Fennel plants can reach up to 1-5m and need some room to spread.

* Space fennel plants at least 50cm apart, with about 60cm between the rows.

* Protect fennel plants from extreme heat and wind.

* Water well until well established.

Fennel Health Benefits

* Fennel is good for digestion.

* Fennel is useful in the treatment of anemia.

* Fennel is extensively used for treating constipation, diarrhea, renal colic, respiration and menstrual disorders.

* Fennel helps in increasing iron absorption.

* Fennel is good for bone health.

* Fennel helps lowering blood pressure.

* Fennel may reduce getting cancer.

* Fennel boost immune power.

* Fennel helps in weight management.

* Fennel is good for skin health.

Type of Funnel

When it comes to selection a certain type of funnel, you can choose from the herb or bulb variety – both share a sweet aniseed flavor. Common fennel is widely available as a herb, but bronze fennel is well worth adding to your farming operation.

                              

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Parsley Farming

                                                                         

Parsley is a biennial plant with bright green, feather- like leaves and is the same family as dill. This popular herb is used in sauces, salads, and especially soups, as it lessens the need for salt. Not only is parsley the perfect garnish, it’s also good for you: It’s rich in iron and vitamins A and C.

Soil

Parsley enjoys well – draining soil that is rich in organic matter. Pick a spot that gets full sun (6 to 8 hours of sunlight). Try to choose an area that is weed – free; that way you will be able to see the parsley sprouting after about 3 weeks.

Planting

Sow parsley seeds 1/4 inch deep. Sow seeds about 6 to 8 inches apart. For larger plants, sow about 8 to 10 inches apart. Be sure to keep soil moist while seeds germinate. It can take 2 to 4 weeks for seedlings to appear.

Pests / Diseases

* Stem rot.

* Leaf spots.

* Carrot fly and celery fly larvae.

Harvesting

When the leaf stems have three segments, parsley is ready to be harvested. Cut leaves from the outer portions of the plant whenever you need them. Leave the inner portions of the plant to mature. If you want fresh parsley throughout the winter, replant the parsley plant in a pot and keep it in a sunny window.

Storage

One method of storing the parsley fresh is to put the leaf stalks in water and keep them in the refrigerator. Another method of storage is drying the parsley. Cut the parsley at the base and hang it in a well- ventilated shady and warm place. Once it is completely dry, crumble it up and store it in an container.

 

                               

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SUCCESSFUL BEETROOT FARMING

                                                                                  

Beetroot is generally a widely adaptable crop that can be grown under most conditions throughout South Africa. Beetroot can be planted all year round but as a rule of thumb, areas where there could be frost conditions or excessive heat around planting time these should be avoided.

Soil Preparation

As seed is sown directly, fields need to be prepared correctly and thoroughly. The soil need to be well tilled, free of old plant material and have a good crumb structure. Good soil preparation can be achieved by ploughing, harrowing, and leveling prior to sowing. The ideal pH for beetroot production is between 6.0 and 8.0. Beetroot prefer deep, friable, well drained sandy loam’s to silt loam’s.

Crop Rotation

Good crop rotation will keep the soil healthy and fertile. Beetroot can safely be rotated with the following crops:

  • Legumes.

  • Babala.

  • Cereals.

  • Tomatoes.

  • Cabbage.

  • Onions and carrots.

Transplanting

More than 90% of beetroot producers sow the seed directly in the soil, but seed can also be sown in seedbeds, and then transplanted. Seed trays or other containers can also be used to raise seedlings but this is expensive because of the high cost.

Harvesting

Soil should be slightly moist before cutting or pulling beets. If the soil is too dry, roots maybe difficult to clean and the rate of top breakage maybe too high. For the best flavor and tenderness harvesting should begin when roots are 3-4cm in diameter. Handle beets carefully after harvesting to avoid damaging the roots. Any damage reduces shelf life and increases the chances of decay and disease.

                                             

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SPRING ONION FARMING

                                

Spring onions add interest to many dishes. The white bulbs have a delicate onion flavor while the long hollow leaves can be thinly sliced to add texture and color. Spring Onion seeds are sowed from March to August at 3 weekly intervals. Harvesting can start 8 weeks after sowing.

Spring Onions are very easy to grow for commercial purposes and consumers like them because they can be used in a variety of recipes. Spring onions are sometimes called: scallions, bunching onions, long green onions, Japanese bunching onions or salad onions. They are a good source of vitamins A, B and C and come in white and red color stemmed varieties.

Soil Requirements

The best soil for the Spring Onion crop is slightly acid, with a pH between 5.3 and 5.8 – using calcium chloride to measure the levels. Spring Onion crop is produced throughout the year.

Spacing

Single plants – 10cm each way (minimum).

Rows – 10cm with 10cm row gap (minimum).

To sow Spring Onion seed outdoors, sow seeds thinly into shallow drills about 1,5cm deep with rows spaced 30cm apart. Water and keep the seeds environment moist. Once the Spring Onion seeds have germinated and developed into a substantial young plant, cover them with cloches.

Watering

Spring Onions like moderate moisture and water the onions when the soil is starting to dry around the onions. Be careful not to over-water the plant as you will get larger onions with a very weak flavor. Spring Onion plants need to be well watered throughout their growth.This is because of their short root length.

Harvesting

Generally, harvest Spring Onions after 8 weeks. Spring Onions are ready to eat once they reach about 6 inches in height with a thickness of about 1/2 inch. Usually, this takes approximately 8 weeks, but some may take a few weeks longer.

                                          

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Business & Farming Proposals

                   

What is a R.F.P.? – Request for Proposal.

Generally speaking, businesses that send a RFP know the “what” of their problem and need, but not necessarily the “how” it will be solved. The main concern of a business/farming proposal is finding the best solution. However,, a RFP is not to be confused with an invitation for bid – IFB. An IFB is sent when a business already knows what their need is and how they want to fulfill the need.

What is a business/farming proposal?

A proposal is a written document sent by a business to persuade a potential client to choose that specific business. They can be solicated or unsolicated, as long as they pertain to the prospect’s business and needs. When a proposal is requested through an RFP, however, your prospect is actively looking for the kind of solution your business provides.

What is the difference between a business proposal and a business plan?

Business Proposal – This is a document meant to persuade a person or business requesting a solution to their need or problem.

Business PlanThis is a document of your vision for your business and how you intend to achieve that vision. Business Plans include financial projections for the cost of your business development and operations. Also, an estimation of the revenue you expect your business to generate. Business or Farming/Agric Plans are not used to win over a prospect for their business, but business proposals may sometimes be used in a business or farming plan.

Your business or farming proposal is your opportunity to convince your buyer that they should choose your business rather than doing it themselves or using a different vendor or resource.  When creating your proposal, approach it conversationally, as if you sitting across the table in front of the reader.

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CARMINGO APRICOT FARMING

                                                                         

Apricots in supermarkets have always been seen as a niche product and the new Carmingo range, offer a season extension. The product is a winner for consumers because of its good size, high natural sweetness and good shelf life.

Production Areas

Apricots thrive in areas with cold, dry winters and dry, hot summers. While they are produced throughout South Africa, the bulk of production takes place in the Western Cape under winter rainfall conditions.

Apricot Season

Depending on climatic conditions, the production area and cultivar, the apricot season in South Africa takes place from November to March, with small volumes trickling in around April.

Apricot Uses

Apricots are high in fibre, vitamins, especially vitamins A and C, and minerals. The fruit and skin are edible, but the stone is discarded. Apricots can be enjoyed fresh or canned, pureed, dried, preserved or juiced. They are also used to make chutneys and are included in cooking.

Production

Trees require a minimum of 4000 m3 water/ha per year. Production costs and labor are relatively similar to that of the older apricot cultivars but the establishment costs are significantly higher. This is working out at about R80/tree, as the plant material is subject to royalties.

Trees are usually planted at a density of 1000/ha spaced at 2,5m in the row and 4m between the rows, as these trees have a more upright growth. The fruit may be exported only by licensed exporters, which in South Africa are Icon Fruit, Delecta, Cape 5 and Stems.

To enable you to start successfully or to expand your farming operation you will need a Professional and well – structured Agric/Farming type of Business Plan.

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How to start a Manufacturing Business?

                                 

“Manufacturing” refers to a large – scale production of goods. The goods converts raw materials, parts, and components into finished merchandise using manual labor and/or machines. The finished goods can be sold directly to consumers, manufacturers or wholesalers.

A manufacturing business is any business that uses raw materials, parts and components to assemble finished goods, Manufacturing businesses often employ machines, robots, computers and humans to produce the merchandise. It typically use an assembly line, which enables a product to be put together step by step.

Manufacturing Types:

There are 3 main types of manufacturing production:

  1. Make – to – Stock (MTS).

  2. Make – to – Order (MTO).

  3. Make – to – Assemble (MTA).

Make – to – Stock – (MTS) is a traditional manufacturing strategy that relies on past sales data. The data is used to forecast consumer demand and plan the production activity in advance. The drawback of this strategy is that it uses past data to predict future demand. This increases the likelihood of the forecast being off, leaving the manufacturer with too much or not enough stock.

Make – to – order – (MTO) – This allows customers to order products that are customized and manufactured to their specifications. The manufacturing process begins only after the order is received. So, the waiting time for the customer is longer, but the risk of excessive inventory is cut out.

Make – to – Assemble – (MTA) – This is a strategy that relies on demand forecasts to stock the basic components of a product. Assembling starts after the order is received. It’s a hybrid of MTS and MTO approaches. Customers can customize the products and receive them quicker because the manufacturer has the basic components ready. However, if orders don’t come in, the manufacturer is stuck with a stock of unwanted parts.

To reduce risks, any type of manufacturing business should focus on keeping production costs low. Also, maintaining good quality control and investing in excellent sales management.

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Start with Brinjals

                                                                                    

“Brinjals”or Eggplant” is a species of nightshade, and therefore related to the potato and tomatoes. Brinjal is a warm – season crop grown for its edible fruit. Good – quality brinjals can be grown in open lands across various parts of the country year – round.

Soil

Brinjals favor a well – drained loam to sandy loam soil. However, it will grow reasonably well in a wide range of different soil types. Certain criteria in terms of the soil structure and content must be met to make the crop commercially viable. These include nutrient composition, compaction, effective soil depth, pH, crop rotation, herbicide residue and the water- holding capacity of the soil.

Varieties

Different varieties produce fruit of different sizes shapes and colors. This varying from white to yellow or green, reddish purple and dark purple. The currently favored cultivars produce a fruit that is egg-shaped, 12cm to 25 cm long and 6cm to 9cm in diameter, and has a dark purple skin.

Harvesting

Pick Brinjals/eggplant when the skin takes on a high gloss. To test, press the skin. If the indentation doesn’t spring back, that fruit is ready for harvest. To harvest clip the eggplant of the plant with pruning shears, keeping the cap and about 1 inch of the stem intact.

Eggplants” will keep up to two weeks of refrigerated. If you cut open an eggplant fruit and find that the seeds inside have turned brown, the fruit is past prime quality and the flavor may be bitter. The best way to avoid this is by picking fruits on the young side. This is when they are a third or two- thirds of their fully mature size.

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PROFITABLE BROCCOLI FARMING

                                   

“Broccoli” has become a far more important crop of late due to its reported health benefits. Broccoli is also much easier to grow than before. The best months for growing broccoli in South Africa is February, March and April.

“Broccoli” is worth growing for its nutritional content alone. The crop is rich in vitamins and minerals. It is a good source of Vitamin A, Potassium, Folid Acid, Iron and Fiber.

Planting Site

* Broccoli requires a site with exposure to full sun – (6-8 hours per day).

* Plant in a bed of moist, fertile soil that drains well.

* Soil pH should be slightly acidic, between 6.0 and 7.0

Planting

* Outdoors – sow seeds 1/2 inch deep and 3 inches apart.

* Indoors – plant transplants that are 4-6 weeks old, outdoors 12 – 20 inches apart. Plant in holes slightly deeper than their container depth.

* Space rows of broccoli should be 3 feet apart.

* Water well at the time of planting.

Harvesting

Broccoli grown from seed will come to harvest in 100 – 150 days. Grown from transplants broccoli will come to harvest in 55 to 80 days. Cut buds when they are still green and tight. Cut the central head with 5 to 6 inches of stem. Leave the base of the plant and some outer leaves to encourage new heads on secondary shoots.

In general, broccoli plants can be harvested two or three times and for a period up to 3 months. Broccoli should be harvested when the heads are small, tight and firm. If flower buds appear, it should be cut immediately.

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CACTUS / PRICKLY PEAR FARMING

Cactus or prickly pear farming is enjoying renewed interest in South Africa. This is because of the drought and climate change as well as the commercial potential of a crop with abundant uses.

Prickly pear is a surprising simple cactus. Its easy and undemanding to grow. It is also hardy enough to survive in most climates, and boasts a cheery, delicate flower. Prickly pears are a cactus, so they need well- draining soil first and foremost. Plant them in full sun in a sandy or gravely mix and go easy on the water.

Soil

In order for the prickly pear to thrive, it needs to be planted in well-draining soil. Your best bet is a mixture that is dry, sandy, or gravelly. It can also do well in a mixture that is primarily clay, as long as it drains very well and soil does not retain much moisture. Prickly pear isn’t especially high – maintenance and can thrive in a neutral- to -acidic mixture with a pH level of 6.0 – 7.5

Water

Prickly pear cactus is extremely drought tolerant so water it less than you think it needs. In most areas, your typical rainfall will be likely be enough for the cactus to thrive. If not, you can plan to water the plant every two to four weeks.

Fertilizer

When planted outdoors in garden soil, no fertilizer is needed. However, occasional feeding may be required indoors. Use well-balanced fertilizer and let the plant tell you when it needs food. This will be when its green color starts to pale or it doesn’t flower, it should be fed.

Plant Usage

Farmers use the cactus pear to make fodder and silage. Consumers eat the fruit, bio gas made from the plan can produce electricity. Furthermore, the fruit can be used to make oil, juice, jam, jelly, and chutney and the cladodes  can be turned into salads. The ruit is also used to make beer, wine, mampoer or liqueurs.

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Golden Kiwi Farming

        

Kiwifruits also known as simply “kiwis” are a popular type of edible berry that grows on wines in temperature regions. If you want to grow a kiwi plant for its fruit, purchace a grafted plant from a nursery.

The three types of kiwi fruit are:

1. Common Kiwi – This is the type of kiwifruit typically found in grocery stores. It is a brown/fuzzy fruit with a thick skin and green pulp.

2. Golden Kiwi – Another popular type of kiwi. The golden kiwi is sweeter but more delicate compared to the common kiwi. It is closely related to common kiwifruit but less fuzzy and more yellow.

3. Kiwi Berry – This name usually refers to two different kiwi species, the hardy kiwi and the super-hardy kiwi. These kiwifruits are much smaller compared to common and golden kiwis and have a thinner smooth skin.

Development in the South Africa’s kiwifruit industry has been picking up pace over recent years. There are now 500 ha planted, including 200 ha of yellow varieties. South African growers produce good quality yellow kiwi. They produce it at a time when they can go into a market in Europe ahead of any other Southern Hemisphere players.

Input Costs – Hail netting for a 10 ha orchard will cost about R250 000/ha. To buy and plant young vines and maintaining through their first 3 years of growth can cost R250 000 – R300 000/ha.

The trees enter production in their fourth year. It will cost approximately R60 000/ha/year to manage a mature gold kiwifruit orchard from then on wards.

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PRECISION FARMING / AGRICULTURE

 

       

Precision Farming seeks to use new technologies to increase crop yields and profitability while lowering the levels of traditional inputs. These inputs are needed to grow crops – land, water, fertilizer, herbicides and insecticides. In other words, farmers utilizing precision agriculture are using less to grow more. Precision agriculture is the latest trend in agricultural sectors around the world, because it saves time and reduces cost.

DO YOU NEED TO SWITCH TO PRECISION FARMING???

Yes. It is already profitable and will be inevitable in the future. American farmers already save between $11 000 and $39 000 a year on average. The sooner farmers begin to implement precision farming, the more competitive they will be in the future.

Precision Farming Benefits:

  • Simplified Farming Processes.
  • More cost – efficient farming.
  • More time on hands.
  • Higher yields and more profitable.
  • Better quality produce.
  • Less waste.
  • Higher quality of life.

       

Many farmers are adopting new equipment to make their farming more precise. Tractors can map fields, drives themselves, and check it’s own motion so it doesn’t waste fertilizer, seed or fuel. Farnming technology includes remote sensing with data collection on variables like nutrient levels and soil moisture.

Precision farming is about managing variations in the field accurately to grow more food using fewer resources and reducing production costs. The main goal of “precision farming” is to improve agricultural yield and reduce potential environmental risks.

Future of Precision Farming

Some of the most recently technologies available and under development are the state – of – the – art robots. They are capable of managing crops more and more accurately with the possibility of collecting important data.

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How to be Successful in Spinach Farming?

                                                                                        

Spinach is not only full of flavour, but full of goodness too. Spinach is high in iron, Vitamin A, Vitamin c and low in categories. What most of us eat as spinach is usually “Swiss Chard” because it is:

  • Much more available.
  • Easier to grow.
  • Heat tolerant and
  • More productive.

Spinach and Swiss Chard are among the easiest vegetables to grow. They germinate easily, don’t take up much space and are easy to harvest. However, they are gross feeders and need regular feeding to be a great success.

Soil Requirements

Spinach seeds germinate at 2°C to 30°C. However, 7°C to 24°C is optimum. Seeds will not germinate well in warm weather. Although spinach will grow in temperatures ranging from 5° to 24°C, growth is more rapid at 15° to 18°C.

The plant requires a constant and uniform supply of water in order to obtain a good crop of high quality. During spinach production, the soil should never be allowed to dry out. Spinach requires plenty of water, although the soil should have good drainage.

Spinach grows well on a variety of soils, although fertile, sandy loams with a high organic matter content is preferred. Spinach is particularly sensitive to saturated soil conditions and to acidity. The optimum soil pH is 6.2 to 6.9.

Planting

Before planting, prepare and enrich the soil with generous amounts of organics as well as bone meal for root development.

  • Spinach and Swiss Chard can be sown in situ. Swiss Chard can also be sown in seed trays as it transplants better than spinach.
  • Keep the soil moist during germination – which takes about 5 days.
  • Seedlings should be spaced, or thinned out, to about 20cm apart.
  • Feed with a liquid fertilizer about 2 weeks after germination and at least once a month after that..

Plants should be spaced 10 – 20 cm apart in rows that are 30cm apart. This equates to about 160 000+ plants per hectare. Commercial growers that harvest mechanically plant closer together at 15cm by 25cm giving the grower 250 000+ plants per hectare.

Growth Period

Harvesting of the first outer leaves can begin at 60 to 70 days from planting. To ensure longer production periods and higher yields spinach needs Nitrogen in the soil throughout its growing period.

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Battery Recycling

                

It is evident that batteries comprised of various hazardous ingredients. This could be incredibly damaging to the environment when dumped. If we do not recycle them, the hazardous materials are sure to wind up in rivers, soil, and air. .

Batteries are expensive and have a relatively short life span. As discarded batteries grow by the tonnage, entrepreneurs are enticed to start a business in recycling. The primary objective of building a good battery is long life, safety and low price.. Recycling is an afterthought and manufacturers do little to simplify the retrieving of precious metals. The recycling business is small compared to the vast battery industry, and only lead acid can be recycled profitably.

Lead – acid batteries are an environmental success story with more than 90% of all scrap batteries successfully recycled in South Africa. This is compared with 70% of beverage cans, 65% of news papers, 30% of plastic, and 26% of glass.

Every day thousand of batteries are produced to service everything from industrial machines, automobiles and even golf carts. Anything that needs mobile electricity needs a powerful battery. The problem is that defunct batteries pose an environmental conundrum. If not dealt with correctly the hazardous materials end up being cast away and negatively impact the environment.

Common materials for recycling includes bottles, paper, towels, aluminum cans etc. Niches available in the recycling industry are:

  • Metals recycling.
  • Plastic recycling.
  • Electronic recycling.
  • Water recycling.
  • Oil recycling.
  • Glass recycling.
  • Furniture recycling.
  • Garbage recycling.
  • Tyre recycling.
  • Construction waste recycling.
  • Paper recycling.
  • Battery Recycling.
  • Cartridge recycling and
  • Industrial waste recycling.

According to experts, all sorts of used scrap metal maybe profitable. The waste and recycling sector is a broad one though, and there are lots of areas that remain unexploited.

            

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Start a Matches Manufacturing business

                   

Matches (Matchsticks) are a very handy tool used in starting a fire. They are used in the kitchen to light ovens, kerosene stoves and cookers. Other application involves starting a fireplace, industrial burners, camp fires or to light candles. Matchsticks are made from plastic material, wood or cardboard strips.

Matches are sold in quantity. There’s the wooden type, which are packaged in boxes. There are also paper matches, which are clustered in rows stapled into matchbooks.

Because matches are used in almost every home and every industrial establishment, the demand for matches is always high.  This means there is huge profit potential in the matchstick production business.

Billions of matchboxes are used all over the world in a day for different purposes. These include: to light cooking gas, fireplace, incense sticks or cigarettes etc. This creates a huge demand for a matchstick manufacturing business. The production of wooden matchsticks is a great option to select. Any individual can initiate a matchstick manufacturing business on a small scale with maintaining strictly safety measures. Matchsticks are a consumer durable product and the demand is growing day-by-day.

Manufacturing  Process

The manufacturing process consists of several stages:

  1. Preparing of wood – Wood is cut , into small matches, soaked in fire retardant ammonium phosphate and left to dry. Striking end of the stick is then soaked in hot paraffin wax. This will provide small amount of fuel to the wood, enabling it to burn more easily.
  2. After matches are transferred to the conveyor belt that is filled with holes in which sticks are inserted. Then they are carried to the tanks that contain two mix of chemicals. One to serve as a base, and one as a finalized layer of match head. Conveyors then move matches away from the tanks, allowing them to get dry.
  3. Packaging and storing.

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Wheat Farming

 
           

Wheat is an annual grass with basic, erect, hollow or pithy culms. The wheat plant can grow up to 1,2m tall. The wheat leaves are flat and narrow while they can extend up to 38cm long. The spikes are long, slender, dorsally compressed and somewhat flattened.

Temperature

Warm temperatures are suitable for summer wheat (22° to 34°C) and cool temperatures are suitable for winter wheat (5° to 25°C). An ideal climate for planting wheat can be described as cool and moist, followed by a warm dry season for harvesting.

Soil Requirements

Well – drained fertile loamy to sandy loam with pH of 6.0 to 7.5. Soil temperatures of less than 5°C are not suitable for seed germination. Wheat is adversely affected by acidic soil.

Soil Preparation

Soil tillage is one of the important production practices over which the farmer has full control. The effect of tillage cannot be predicted for any season. Therefore, the farmer has to plan his actions to solve specific problems. Unnecessary cultivation’s cost money, time and effort, while valuable soil water is lost in the process. Such cultivation also cause re compaction that has to be addressed later. Minimum tillage (75 to 130mm deep) deep tillage (150 to 300 mm) or no till can be practiced. This will also depend on the soil type, moisture availability, type of cultivar and the previous crop planted.

Planting

Wheat is planted mainly between Mid – April and Mid June in the in the winter rainfall areas (Western & Southern Cape). Also between Mid – May and the end of July in the summer rainfall areas (Eastern Free State). The seed should be planted evenly and shallowly in a moist, firm seedbed. Germination, emergence and development of adventitious roots occur within 4 to 6 weeks after planting under proper soil conditions. The required spacing in the row is about 30cm and 50 to 100cm between the rows, depending on the available soil moisture or the farming method.

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Start a Cosmetic Business

        

When starting your cosmetic / beauty products business, you need to have a “niche” and that niche cannot be organic or natural. There are many untapped niches in the beauty industry for instance:

  • Skincare for the elderly.
  • Skincare for certain types of athletes (swimmers, runners etc).
  • Skincare for teenage boys/girls.

You need to find the niche that works for you and then target that niche with your unique brand.

The cosmetics / beauty industry is in  a state of flux. Traditional brands ( Revlon, L’Oreal, Lancóme, etc) are viewed as old. The consumer is looking for more holistic and healing benefits from their skin care products. They are no longer content with just the appearance benefits offered by traditional brands. Today’s consumer is more informed and more inquisitive about the benefits of their personal care products. Their skin products needs to protect them from the sun damaging rays. Also moisturize their skin and reduce the effects of aging.

Manufacturing

You need to decide whether you will be producing your beauty/cosmetic products yourself in your own lab or home lab, using a contract manufacturer or opting for private label products.

The cosmetics industry is one of the growing industries in the country with a number of industries. Unisex beauty cosmetics with many branches, and other small businesses have joined the industry. Despite the increase in cosmetic industries, customer demands are not fully met due to the increasingly growing population. Poor delivery of cosmetics to customers also add to the problem.

Cosmetic and beauty products include but not limited to: perfumes, make up items, hair care products, face creams, lotions, deodorants nail polishes etc. The cosmetic industry is one of those businesses which are not affected by economic downfalls or unpredictable incomes as every woman and some men use some type of cosmetic product to maintain a healthy and fresh look.

    

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TOURISM – STILL PROFITABLE?

         

Tourism refers to all activities related to the short -term movement of people to locations away from where they reside. Tourism is one of the largest industries and the economies of many nations are driven, to a large extent, by their tourist trade.

Tourism remains a key driver of South Africa’s national economy and contributes to job creation. The Tourism industry is a major contributor to the South African economy and employment of citizens. The Tourism sector contributes about 9% to the country’s gross domestic product (GDP).

The Tourism sector can also contribute positively to youth employment targets and, importantly, also to transformation. This is because it has shown to absorb higher numbers of women than other sectors. Research by WTTC (World Travel & Tourism Council) reveals that female share of employment in this industry in South Africa is 53,7%. This is higher than the proportion of total female employment in the economy (43,7%). A trend echoed in 10 other G20 countries.

Tourism Industry Sectors:

Transportation – Airline, Car Rental, Water Transport, Coach Services (travel) Railway.

Accommodation – Hotels, Shared Accommodation, Hostels, Camping, Bed & Breakfast, Cruises, Time Share.

Food & Beverage –  Restaurants, Catering, Bars & Cafés, Nightclubs.

Entertainment – Casino, Tourist Information, Tourist Guides & Tours.

Connected Industries – Financial Services, Travel Agents, Tour Operators, Online Travel Agencies, Tourism Organizations, Educational.

Tourism Equity Fund

The Travel & Tourist department announced the creation of an equity fund. The equity fund aims to support all small – scale stakeholders in the tourism industry. The travel *& tourism sector continues to reel as a result of the global Covid – 19 pandemic.

The Tourism Equity Fund (TEF) will provide financial assistance to majority black – owned enterprises. The R1,2 billion fund, financed by Government and SA major banks, is now accessible to disadvantaged travel & tourism operators.

       

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Lavender Production

             

Lavender is a perennial bushy shrub growing 0,3 to 1,2m high. True lavender has a compact and rounded growth form. The aromatic evergreen leaves are completely opposite and up to 5cm long. Flowering occurs in the summer and flowers form interrupted spikes and have a very sweet fragrance.

LAVENDER – TEMPERATURE

The Lavender product can tolerate moderate frost and drought. Spike lavender cannot tolerate frost. All lavenders are sensitive to high humidity. High summer temperatures adversely affect oil quality.

Because there are such variable types of lavender, some grow well in different climatic zones from cold to subtropical. Different varieties should be tested to see which will grow best in each micro-climate.

LAVENDER – SOIL

Lavender requires well-drained light, sandy, or sandy loam, or gravelly soils nin full sun. Low- fertility soils are still suitable. Soil pH should be between 5,8 and 8,3. Too moist soils will cause poor plant growth, diseases or kill the plant.English lavenders prefer alkaline soils, whereas the lavandin varieties require slightly more acidic soils.

LAVENDER – PLANTING

The Lavender product is normally planted in row widths of 1,2 to 2,0m apart, with 30 to 60cm between plants. This gives a plant density of 8000 to 28000 plant per hectare. Spacing is done according to available moisture and species, and cultivar size as well as mechanical cultivation and harvesting.

Higher densities mean higher establishment costs but also higher early yields. Plants also tend to support each other, so are more stable and last longer. A good vigorous plantation should be ready for harvest in the second year. Lavender plants can last for 10 to 15 years or longer if managed correctly. Seedlings should be hardened off before being put into the land.

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Sustainable Basil Farming

       

Basil is an erect herbaceous annual plant, or sometimes grown as a short- lived perennial in some areas. It grows into a bushy shape up to about 50cm tall and some varieties may even grow taller. The stems are herbaceous in young tissue. However, these become woody as the plant matures. Basil Farming has good returns and easy to grow.

BASIL FARMING – PROPAGATION

Propagation is from seed but cuttings can also be planted. Commercial growers will plant basil seed by direct sowing or what is more common is to make seedlings in a protected environment or greenhouse and plant these out after three or four weeks.

BASIL FARMING – PLANTING

Planting of basil seedlings is done by hand and mechanically. Direct sow 10cm in the row to ensure a full stand of basil. Thin out later to the desire plant density. Plants should be spaced30cm apart in rows that are 50cm apart. This is between 65 000 and 67 000 basil plants per hectare. Some commercial farmers increase plant density between 80 000 to 100 000 plants per hectare.

 BASIL FARMING – IRRIGATION

The Basil plant is very sensitive to moisture stress so it is very important to keep soil at the optimum capacity advised for the type of soil. Install moisture readers for constant monitoring. Stress will bring on flower, which is detrimental to production. Basil can be irrigated by sprinkler or drip. Drip is, however, best as it keeps the leaves dry. Wet foliage can cause fungus growth, which damages the leaves. Depending on the weather and temperature basil can grow on about 40mm of irrigation per week.

BASIL FARMING – GROWTH

From the time the basil seeds are planted to when the first harvest can be done is about ten weeks. Thereafter the basil can be harvested twice more. Cut the basil 15cm above the ground allowing enough stem for re – growth. 

BASIL FARMING – FERTILIZATION

Do not over fertilize as this will hasten maturity and flowering. Fertilize according to soil analysis done on the soil prior to planting. About 200 to 300kg of 3.1.5 when plants are about 20cm high should be ample until the first harvest.

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SUCCESSFUL RADISH FARMING

      

Radishes are a hardy, very easy-to-grow root vegetable that can be planted multiply times in a growing season. Plus, radishes can be harvested as soon as three weeks after planting.

Planting

Grow radishes in full sun or partial shade. Plant radishes in loose, well-drained soil. Remove soil lumps, rocks, and roots from radish planting beds. Obstructions can cause roots to grow malformed. Add organic matter to planting beds before sowing radishes. Radishes prefer a soil pH of 5.5 to 6.8.

Varieties

Radishes can be grown for spring or winter crops. Spring varieties are the common small red varieties. Winter radishes are larger, oblong, and can grow 8 to 9 inches long.

Spring Crops:

  • Cherry Belle – 22 days.
  • Burpee White – 25 days.

Winter Crops:

  • Black Spanish – 55 days.
  • White Chinese – 60 days.

Harvesting

Spring radishes require 20 to 30 days to reach harvest. Winter radishes require 50 to 60 days to reach harvest. Radishes are ready for harvest when roots reach 1 inch across. Lift the whole plant when radishes are the right size. Lift a few or push the soil aside gently to decide if they are large enough to harvest. Do not leave radishes in the ground too long or they will become pithy.

Water & Feeding

Keep radish planting beds moist but not wet. Even, regular watering will result in quick growth. Radishes that receive too little water will become woody tasting. Prepare planting beds with aged compost. Side dress radishes with aged compost at mid season.

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HOW TO START A GINGER FARMING OPERATION?

                   

Ginger is used to produce ginger wine, ginger beer, cordials, pickles and pharmaceutical preparations. A daily intake of 5g of ginger is reported to protect against coronary artery disease (CAD) and normally afflicts individuals who habitually consume fatty foods. Ginger is also used for soft drinks and different medicine preparations.

Planting

The ginger rhizome is broken into smaller pieces and these are used as plant material. The pieces should be about 50 to 75 grams in size and are planted into the plant area at a depth of 15cm.

Spacing

Ginger plants should be spaced 25cm apart in rows that are 30cm apart. This equates to approximately 100 000 to 120 000 plants per hectare. Paths for the tractors and other implements are left every few rows and this depends on the width of the tractors or implements that are used.

Growth

Ginger takes 8 – 10 months to produce a god – sized rhizome or tuber for the harvesting of mid – season ginger in April and May for the fresh market. Late ginger is harvested almost a year after planting in June and July. Late ginger is sold fresh but is also dried and ground or used to extract the oils.

Irrigation

It is a good practice to apply mulching along the plant rows. This keeps the soil from losing moisture and controls the growth of weeds. Ginger does well in high rainfall regions – so irrigation is important over the entire growing period. An irrigation schedule of between 45 and 50 millimeters per week is advised.

Fertilization

Fertilize the plant each six to eight weeks, using organic fertilizer like seaweed extract or fish emulsion. he necessary nutrition it needs to grow ginger are:

Nitrogen – Essential for chlorophyll, proteins, and amino acids.

Phosphorus – It performs a vital part of respiration. Phosphorus is also critical to the evolution of enzymes, phospholipads, and nucleic acids.

Potassium – Necessary for yeast activation, osmosis, transpiration, also the opening and closing of the stomates of the leaves.

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DRAGON FRUIT FARMING – HOW TO START

               

Dragon fruit is a tropical fruit of the climbing cacti (Cacta cease) family. It is also known as pitaya or strawberry pear and is a native species of Mexico, Central and South America. Dragon Fruit is mainly eaten fresh and is best served chilled. The thick skins are easily peeled to reveal white or pink to red flesh, dotted with tiny black seeds

Varieties

There are three most commonly farmed varieties of dragon fruit:

1. pink – red skin with red flesh.

2. rare yellow skinned dragon fruit with white flesh and

3. pink – red dragon fruit with white flesh.

Dragon fruit is best propagated from cuttings. The plants prefer well – drained and composted soil in warm areas with a rainfall of at least 400 mm and up to 1500 mm per year. High – density planting of up to 1250 plants/ha is easily managed, with a spacing of 4m x 5m x 2.5m, depending on trellising systems. The thick fleshy stems can grow up to  4m, in a single growing season and must be trained and tied onto a single pole or trellis system of about 1.8m high. Precast concrete poles are widely used and three to four plants can be trained onto one pole.

Harvesting

As the fruit develops, it starts changing colour at 26 – 30 days after pollination. It should be ready to harvest in about 30 – 34 days, a few days after the fruit has changed colour. After harvesting by hand, dragon fruit is washed in a food – grade disinfectant and size – graded by weight. The fruit is then sorted according to superficial damage, e.g. ants or fruit flies, shrivel, skin colour as well as the colour and condition of the bracts (scales). The plants bear fruit two years after planting and is in full production within 5 years. Depending on the cultivar and condition of the plantings, yields of 15 – 35 tons/ha can be expected.

Dragon Fruit Uses

Dragon Fruit is primarily grown for the fresh eating market and it often sold at farmers markets in South Africa. The fruit can also be processed into many value – added products such as dried fruit rolls, fruit bars, ice cream, jams, juices, pastries as fruit pulp and in yogurt.

Benefits

* Helping to boost immunity.

* High levels of Vitamin C.

* Speed up metabolism and the digestive process.

* Regulate blood sugar.

* Helpful in diets for diabetics.

* Contains vitamins B1, B2 and B3.

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SUCCESSFUL KALE OR BORE COLE FARMING

                     

Kale – also called Bore Cole, is a cool season crop that belongs to the Brassicas family. Its leaves , which are rich in  vitamins and essential mineral elements are widely utilized alone or mixed with other vegetables, pulses or meat. It is an all-year crop and has the potential to reduce poverty levels.

BENEFITS

* High in iron which is essential for good health.

* Rich in Vitamin K which helps in protecting the body against various cancers.

* High in fiber, low in calorie and zero fat.

* Has anti-inflammatory properties which helps in fighting against asthma, arthritis etc.

* Rich in Vitamin and C.

* Good source of calcium which helps in preventing osteoporosis and bone loss.

Kale is typically grown like other greens, making it easy for existing growers to incorporate it into their farming systems. Kale has a similar flavor to traditional greens, and there are multiple ways to prepare it. Its growing popularity is linked to its perceived health benefits.

VARIETIES

Basically, there are 3 main varieties, dwarf (below 40cm), medium (40 – 80cm) and tall (above 80cm). Tall variety sheds the leaves early and has less production. Main dwarf type varieties are dwarf green curled scotch, dwarf moss curled, moss curled and hamburger market (medium to tall).

SOIL

The Kale crop prefers well – drained sandy loam soil with good organic matter. It can be grown on a wide range of soils having good drainage conditions. This hardy crop tolerates salts in the soil. the ideal soil pH of 5.5 to 6.5 (slightly acidic) will result in a good yield.

HARVESTING

In Kale leaves cultivation, harvesting starts from November and continues up to January. For better quality, it should be harvested at the right vegetative stage. Harvested leaves should be bundled, packed and marketed.

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STARTING A QUAIL EGG PRODUCTION BUSINESS

                       

QUAIL is a general name that is given to a generation of mid-sized birds generally placed in the order Galliformes. There are loads of poultry’s that raise quail for meat and eggs and they are making huge profits from this type of farming operation.

There are loads of opportunities in the poultry farming industry and quail egg production is one of them. In recent time, quail egg production is known by all and it has evolved from small scale to a global industry in most countries where it is carried out.

Quail is a bird about the size of a plump pigeon. Quails reach adulthood in six weeks and start laying eggs almost immediately after this. That means you can start selling a portion of the eggs and get a quick return on your initial investment. Quails lay around 350 eggs a year and females don’t need males to lay eggs.

Once you’ve started selling your quail eggs, you can also consider selling quail meat. The meat is delicious and also healthy. Quail meat and eggs are quickly gaining popularity because the products provide important minerals and vitamins. The meat and eggs are low in fat and high in protein which makes it very popular. It can help with the treatment of diseases like diabetes, tuberculosis, liver disease, hypertension and a host of other ailments.

Quails don’t eat much and will thrive on a special mixture of corn, wheat calcium carbonate and sunflower seeds. They even eat chicken feed, other grains, leaves and insects. Some quail farmers feed the quails weeds from their garden and therefore doesn’t require high maintenance. Your main concern would be to keep the birds well fed and watered.

Breeding

For successful breeding purpose, you have to keep male and female quails on a proper ratio.The most effective ratio for successful breeding is 5:1.That means, one male with every 5 female quails. Quails don’t hatch their eggs so you can also plan to purchase an incubator for hatching their eggs.

Quails are highly disease resistant unlike chickens. Diseases and other health issues are less in quails. By proper care and management, you can keep your birds healthy and productive and free from all types of illnesses or health issues.

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SHOULD I START A CAR WASH BUSINESS?

              

Starting a car wash business is one of the ways to hit good money really fast. This is because of the way people use them. However, care has to be taken so that one sets up something quite unique and different from the conventional car wash centers.

In the car wash industry, you will also find customized services such as full and self- service car wash services, as well as truck and bus washes and vehicle detailing services. The industry is open to both small entrepreneurs (neighborhood car wash) and big time investors.

A car wash business is perfect for someone who wants to start his own business. You do not have to have much capital to start. You can start small and gradually expand as your finances improve. To stand out from the rest of the car washes in your neighborhood, you will need to put in some extras in addition to washing cars. Think of selling snacks that your customers can munch on while they wait.

Just like in any other business, you must know your target market. While it is clear that your target market are vehicle owners, you need to know their lifestyles in order to attract them to your car wash. You must find out how much they spend on taking care of their cars and decide on a reasonable fee. Also check the kind of cars the majority of prospective customers drive.

MARKETING

The marketing and advertising side won’t cost you too much money to create awareness of the existence of your business. The business needs to be visible and you can also personally tell people about your services. Wherever you go nowadays, you are always approached by individuals wanting to wash your car. This is how easy it is to sell your services.

Before you even begin to look for funding, you will at this point need to create a detailed business plan. No institution will give you funding without one. Sourcing funding for a start up can be a bit of a challenge if you do not know where to go or what they are expecting of you.

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START A TYRE SHOP BUSINESS SUCCESSFULLY

                                        

There are some businesses that someone can start with little schooling and no serious business background and training necessary. One of them is a Tyre retailing shop. The basic things you would need to have in place to make a success is a good location, easy access to the supply of quality tyres and good customer service skills.

The automobile industry is ever evolving, but tires have remained consistent – and a tire shop is a proven and effective business model. Many different niches exist within the tire industry, ranging from retail to repair.

LOCATION

The location for your tire business will require space to house some vehicles and/or trucks. At least one garage bay is required but multiple bays with high clearance increase your earning abilities. Purchasing the space is ideal as an investment, but leasing is common, especially for a new business with limited capital. A high visible location increases natural foot traffic.

MARKET RESEARCH

Always do proper market research before investing in a location. Assess the population base, vehicles on the road and the competition. The tyre business is often safe because every vehicle on the road requires tyre service. It is however important to understand the dynamics in the local economy. For example, a small town with a stable tyre business is a difficult market to penetrate while an urban or growing area with high traffic has more potential. While conducting market research, assess the pricing offered by competitors and work through your pricing strategy.

SERVICE OFFERINGS

The tire business has niches that include repair, retail, mounting, balance and alignment. Some shops even offer some mechanical work to varying degrees. Brakes, U-joints, idler arms and front end parts are often in need of repair, and the shop can quickly examine and quote the additional work while increasing billable hours and profit margins.

MARKETING

When your Tyre business is set up, licensed, and launched, you may receive some traffic, but proper marketing will increase traffic, sales and revenue. Advertise locally, set up a website and get the business listed on GOOGLE’S local business search. Customers will find you, utilize your service and leave reviews through this platform.

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SUCCESSFUL STRAWBERRY FARMING

                    

Starting a strawberry farming business, is good news because you can’t get it wrong due to various species of strawberries that are consumed fresh by almost everybody and all over the globe.

Strawberries and strawberry flavorings are a popular addition to dairy products such as strawberry milk, strawberry ice cream, strawberry milkshakes, and yogurts to mention a few. Although farmers have been quite reluctant in participating in strawberry farming stating that the industry is not very developed, those looking into venturing into the practice are highly encouraged because of the huge income potential.

Planting

Strawberries can be grown from seeds, or using transplants (runners) from already existing strawberry plants. It is however more difficult to start with seeds and therefore runners are mostly used.

Cultural Practices

Mulching – after planting the strawberry plants, mulching the beds with pine needles, shredded leaves or straw helps to keep the soil temperature down, mitigate the weed problem, and also keeps the fruit cleaner by keeping the strawberries off of the dirt.

Irrigation – water is critically and essential when growing strawberries. The plants need a lot of water especially when the runners and flowers are developing. Drip irrigation is highly recommended as it waters at the root.

Pruning – this is majorly aimed at increasing fruit production. Flowers should be pruned off immediately they appear.

Fertilization – application fertilizers an manure boost production. However, if too much fertilizer is applied, this promotes excessive leaf growth and poor production of flower stalks. Too much nitrogen results in soft and easily – damaged strawberries.

It is important to state that strawberry farming comes its own fair share of challenges, but that does not rule out the fact that it is indeed a profitable business venture. An aspiring entrepreneur can either choose to start on a small or on a large scale depending on their financial status.

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HOW TO START A CABBAGE FARM OPERATION

                    

Cabbage is a kind of vegetable that is prepared and consumed in different forms. Cabbage can be eaten as a raw vegetable or steamed. Cabbage is a leafy green, (purple), or white (pale green) biennial vegetable plant grown as an annual vegetable crop for its dense- leaved heads. Many shapes, colors and leaf textures are found in various cultivated varieties of cabbage.

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HOW TO START A OSTRICH FARMING BUSINESS?

                        

There are a huge growth potential for the ostrich market, even though the industry is yet to gain a 1% share of the total meat market. Having at least a 1% share in the total meat market would mean that that more ostriches (numbering about 4 million) would need to be farmed and slaughtered to be able to meet the growing demand.

Ostrich is characterized by 3 product phases, i.e. meat, leather and feathers with the current main source of income meat and leather. The value of a slaughtered ostrich is broken down into 45% skin, 45% meat and 10% feather. This contrasts with Europe, where the breakdown is 75% meat and 25% skin. This is because of the popular healthy aspects that ostrich meat contains the lowest fat and cholesterol and is rich in protein and iron.

VALUE CHAIN

Ostrich products (leather, meat, feathers and curios) are marketed locally and exported through a free market system.The main market for ostrich meat is restaurants, wholesalers, supermarkets and food-service suppliers. The market for ostrich leather includes the clothing, fashion and upholstery industries and for the feathers the household, fashion and carnival markets.

Ostrich farming is much more profitable than raising other traditional farm animals. Ostriches are loving birds, they are quite easy to raise and require little maintenance from farmers. One of the reasons why ostrich farming is such a lucrative business is the number of valuables an ostrich has to offer; and very little ever goes to waste.

Ostrich Products

Meat – The meat is red with  lower fat and is also a good source of iron and protein.

Eggs –  The eggs are about 6 inches long, 5 inches wide and weighs 2 kg. Ostriches can lay about 15 – 45 eggs per season. 1 ostrich egg is equivalent to 5 chicken eggs.

Feathers – The feathers are extremely valuable and durable. The feathers are used to make dusters for cleaning, hat and home decorations.

Skin (leather) – Ostrich leather is of high quality being thick, soft and durable. It is used to make handbags, carpets, clothing, books etc.

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WHY A CHICKEN EGG HATCHERY?

                                              

There are loads of business opportunities in the poultry industry and a chicken egg hatchery business is one of them. A chicken egg hatchery business comes with its own fair share of challenges, but that does not rule out the fact that it is indeed a profitable business. An aspiring entrepreneur can either choose to start the business on a small scale covering a small community or on a large scale depending on their financial status.

Breed

There are more than 200 varieties of chickens available today. There are many things to consider when determining the best breed for your flock. These factors include climate, breed temperaments, egg production levels and whether you want a “dual-purpose” bird that is good for eggs and meat or purely an egg producer. There are some breeds that work out better for a smaller farm or homestead. Combining multiple breeds in one flock is fine. They will get along, and whether you have one breed or seven, they will establish their pecking order.

“Laying hen” is a common term for a female growing chicken that is kept primarily for laying eggs. Some chickens are raised for meat, while others are raise to produce eggs, and some are dual – purpose. People may use older laying hens for food, or rise roosters alongside hens but dispatch the roosters as young, plumb birds for the table. Raising laying hens is a different process than raising chickens for meat. Most laying ens will live five to seven years, laying eggs nearly daily for out three of those years.

The Poultry Raising Industry has experienced positive trends in the demand for artificially hatched chicks and eggs. Increasing health consciousness among South African meat consumers has boosted consumption of white meat such as chicken, which is also more affordable than beef or pork.

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SUCCESSFUL AND PROFITABLE ALFALFA FARMING

                       

Alfalfa is a crop that is widely grown throughout the world as forage for cattle, and is mostly often harvested as hay, but can also be made into silage, grazed, or fed as green – chop. Alfalfa usually has the highest feeding value of all common hay crops. Alfalfa farming has been in existence for many years but does not in any way make the industry to be over saturated. Farmers are now exploring new technology to continue to improve the cultivation process. The fact that there is always a ready market for alfalfa makes the business highly thriving and profitable.

Alfalfa is commonly inter-seeded with small grains, such as oats, wheat, and barley, and it grows after the grain is harvested. The Alfalfa variety nitro can be used as an annual cover crop because it is not very winter-hardy and usually winter-kills under northern conditions.

Planting

Those living in cooler climates can plant Alfalfa in spring while milder regions should opt for fall planting. Since Alfalfa roots quickly, it doesn’t require deep planting- only about a half inch deep. Merely sprinkle the seeds evenly onto the soil and cover it lightly with some dirt. You should begin to see sprouts within 7 to 10 days.

Harvesting

If planting alfalfa for livestock, it will need to be harvested and cured prior to flowering (known as early- bloom stage). It becomes more difficult for animals to digest once the plant matures. Harvesting in this early – bloom stage also ensures the most optimal nutrient percentages, which is often found in the plant’s leaves.

Once harvested the ground will need to be turned before the next seasons planting takes place. Alfalfa has few pest problems, however, the alfalfa weevil can cause some serious damage. In addition, the stem nematode can infest and weaken stem buds.

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HOW TO START A PLUMBING BUSINESS

                      

The plumbing industry provides general maintenance and repair services to residential and commercial customers, including plumbing and electrical repairs, appliance installation and repair etc.

Emergency repair work like unclogging drains or repairing burst water mains represent a significant source of industry revenue. Plumbers can also supply plumbing appliances and coupling products for construction projects as a means of increasing income for the business.

Some key points to consider:

Know your niche -Do some research to know which plumbing areas are least covered by other companies. Your niche may be commercial maintenance, hospitals, nursing homes or large scale buildings and warehouses. Whichever it may be, make sure that you pick a niche that you can handle well.

Training & Experience – Without knowing a particular field of plumbing inside out, your business will go directionless. So, get a first-hand experience of the work in which you want to branch out. This is especially important if you are not a licensed plumber yet.

Business Cards – One of the key things you must have for your business is a business card. The card should have all of your contact details such as a phone number, fax number, website address, email address, company location etc. This comes in handy when a client wants to contact your company for your services.

Business Plan – A Business Plan is like your guide that helps you keep on the right track. Do not mistake the plan for merely chalking out some financial resources here and there. It is not a randomly created list of Do’s or Dont’s. The fact is that the plan involves all things that you are going to do in the next many years even a decade related to your business. Merely having a company logo design for your plumbing business is not enough. If you need any help in this area it is better to make use of a professional business plan consultant that can share his experience with you.

Unique Logo – A uniquely designed logo does many things for the advancement of any business including your plumbing start – up. A logo is not just a symbolic representation of what your company makes or sells. It is not just a trademark to legally identifying your business. More than that, it is a visual that attracts your potential customers to your offerings or services. They will identify and verify your services by checking your logo.

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SUCCESSFUL KIWIFRUIT FARMING

                   

Kiwifruits, also known as simply “kiwis” are a popular type of edible berry that grows on vines in temperate regions. Large areas of South Africa’s interiors are suitable for gold kiwifruit production, as the vines can tolerate temperatures as low as -15°C in midwinter. South African growers produce good quality yellow kiwi, and they produce it at a time when they can go into a market in Europe ahead of any other Southern Hemisphere player. During the 2018 season the return for New Zealand kiwi fruit growers was approximately R1,3million / ha.

KIWIFRUIT TYPES

Common Kiwi

This is the type of kiwifruit typically found in groceries stores. It is a brown, fuzzy fruit with a thick skin and green pulp. For optimal growth, it requires about a month of cool weather with temperatures ranging from 30 to 45 degrees Fahrenheit (-1 – 7°).

Golden Kiwi

Another popular type of kiwi, the golden kiwi is sweeter but more delicate compared to the common kiwi. It is closely related to common kiwifruit but is less fuzzy and more yellow.

Kiwi Berry

This name usually refers to two different kiwi species, the hardy kiwi and the super – hardy kiwi. These kiwifruits are much smaller compared to common and golden kiwis and have a thinner, smooth skin. As their names suggest, this type of kiwi is the most cold – tolerant and can be grown in areas that experience harsh winters.

Growing Requirements

Kiwi fruit vines need deep, friable, fertile, free-draining soil to thrive. They can be planted in full sun or semi shade and need to be kept moist (but not waterlogged), as this could lead to root rot. Mixing organic compost into the soil will improve growth. Vines should be protected from strong winds.

Harvesting

The fruit ripens in November , and harvesting can start when the fruit begin to soften. It can be picked off the vine by hand, or clipped off, close to the base of each fruit. Firm fruit can be kept at room temperature for up to eight weeks. Ripe fruit will last for a week or more if kept in the refrigerator.

IF YOU WANT TO START SUCCESSFULLY IN THIS TYPE OF FARMING OPERATION YOU NEED TO START WITH A PROFESSIONAL FARMING BUSINESS PLAN EVEN IF YOU DO NOT NEED FUNDING – CONTACT US NOW – (27)84 583 3143 or money@global.co.za

                 

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START YOUR OWN PROFITABLE CATERING SERVICE

                                  

South Africans love of dining and entertaining has created a tremendous market for off-premises caterers all across the country. A wide range of social and business events are providing an opportunity for caterers to cook up tasty dishes. Social catering has seen some of the strongest growth in the overall food – service industry in recent years, and that trend is expected to continue.

From a cost – to – entry perspective, catering is probably the most flexible of all food businesses. While you need a commercial location, you can start small and build your equipment inventory as you need to. You may even find an existing commercial kitchen that you can rent and operate from till you can move into your own premises.

The catering industry attracts a broad range of entrepreneurs. If you’ve been wondering how to stat a business in catering you’ve got plenty of options. Maybe you’re an excellent cook, maybe you love throwing parties, or maybe you’re interested in event planning and want to get the ball rolling by catering.

If you want to be successful in this type of business start by following these steps:

Step one Choose Business name and type.

Once you have decided on the type of catering business you want to start, you can move on choosing a suitable name for your business. Make sure your business name is available by checking the name with the applicable authorities.

Step 2 – Write a Business Plan.

This will take some time and work to do, but it will pay off in the long run because if you have a plan to fall back on it can help you to know what to expect while running your business. If you struggle in this area you can always make use of the services provided by experienced consultants.

Step 3 – Obtain license and clearance to start.

You need to obtain a business license from the authorities local government, as well as a food handling license. You also need to pass the required health inspection, so consider looking for a commercial kitchen that has already been approved.

Step 4 – Decide on Pricing.

Pricing your work/services depends on where your business is located and what type of catering you do. Pricing will varies when you do buffets, plated dinners, simple appetizers and events where you just drop of food and customers served it themselves.

Step 5 – Employ Staff.

It’s highly unlikely you can cater an event all by yourself, so some staff will be a requirement. You may be able to find staff easily, either by word – of – mouth, or your own network. But you might also need to reach out on food service – oriented job seeking sites, or look into how your competitors find their staff. You also need to ensure that all your staff receive proper and ongoing training.

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HOW TO BECOME A SUCCESSFUL CITRUS FARMER

                                    

Citrus production (oranges, lemons, limes, grapefruit) continues to grow, averaging more than 100 tons every year. More cultivated land in environmentally climates and society’s passion/demand for these fruits, drinks and medicinal uses make this a viable enterprise for anyone wishing to start and grow a new farming business.

THINGS TO CONSIDER:

  • First of all you must have a Business Planbefore starting the farming operation. Basically, a business plan provides a comprehensive guide about the input costs, projected return and profitability.
  • Citrus crops demand irrigation. So, you will need proper irrigation facilities.
  • Alike any other fruit farming business, you will not get any return before harvesting the fruits. That is why you must have the financial preparation to carry on till the cultivation.

SOIL

Citrus grows over a wide range of soils. However, the light, well-drained (sandy) soils are most ideal. For good production citrus products require well-distributed rainfall or supplementary irrigation throughout the year. Therefore, a good source of water is essential in citrus farming. Generally, water requirements vary according to weather conditions, but as a whole, the ideal range is between 450mm – 2700mm per year

Citrus trees can vary in height from 5m to 15m. They are evergreen with spiny shoots and green leaves. Depending on the variety, the flowers may occur singly or in branched clusters. Flowers are usually between 2cm and 4cm in diameter with five petals. Citrus fruit has a tough and leathery rind with a juicy interior. Citrus fruit can be eaten fresh, pressed for juice, or preserved in marmalade’s and pickles.

For marketing and production purposes in South Africa, citrus is divided into four main groups:

  1. Oranges.
  2. Grapefruit.
  3. Lemons and
  4. Soft citrus (e.g. mandarins).

All citrus contains Vitamin C, a water – soluble vitamin with immune- enhancing effects. The Eastern Cape produces the most citrus in South Africa, followed by Limpopo, Mpumalanga, the Western Cape and KZN. The harvesting season is usually from May to October.

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VERMICULTURE FARMING

                                                   

Vermicompost (vermiculture) is the product of the decomposition process using various species of worms,usually red wigglers, white worms and other earthworms, to create a mixture of decomposing vegetable or food waste, bedding materials and vermicast. Vermicast (also called worm castings, worm humus or worm manure) is the end product of the breakdown of organic matter by earthworms. Vermicompost contains water – soluble nutrients and is an excellent, nutrient – rich organic fertilizer and soil conditioner. It is used in farming and small scale sustainable, organic farming.

THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN VERMICULTURE & VERMICOMPOSTING

Vermiculture” is the culture of earthworms. The goal is to continually increase the number of worms in order to obtain a sustainable harvest. The worms are either used to expand a vermicomposting operation or sold to customers who use them for the same or other purposes.

“Vermicomposting” is the process by which worms are used to convert organic materials (usually wastes) into a humus-like material known as vermicompost. The goal is to process the material as quickly and efficiently as possible.

Potential Benefits:

Why should an organic farmer be interested in vermiculture and/or vermicomposting?:

* Vermicompost appears to be generally superior to conventionally produced compost in a number of ways;

* Vermicompost is superior to most composts as an inoculent in the production of compost teas;

* Worms have a number of other possible uses on farms, including value as a high-quality animal feed;

* Vermicomposting and vermiculture offer potential to organic farmers as sources of supplemental income.

Vermicomposting is increasingly being adopted by businesses, institutions, farms, and municipalities for managing organic waste. Organic materials can be vermicomposted on-site or transported to a centralized facility.

Any aspiring entrepreneur having knowledge of the manufacturing process can initiate a vermicompost organic fertilizer production business. Rural areas with a predominance of agriculture suburbs of cities and peri -urban villages are considered ideal locations for setting up of vermicompost units on a large scale from the viewpoint of availability of raw material (cow dung) and marketing of the produce.

Based on the high-end trend of vermicompost technology it is getting increasingly popular among local entrepreneurs for the reason that it is considered profitable maximizing the yield.

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STARTING PAPAYA/PAWPAW FARMING

                     

Papaya (pawpaws) have a creamy, custard – like flesh with a complex combination of tropical fruit flavors. They are most commonly described as tasting like banana combined with mango, pineapple, melon, berries, or other fruit. There is a considerable variety of flavors among wild pawpaws, ranging from awful to sublime.

SOIL

Pawpaw (papaya) need a light, well-drained soil. They are easily killed by excess moisture. The soils need to be moist in hot weather and dry oin cold weather. Pawpaws do not tolerate salty water or soil. While doing best in light, porous soils rich in organic matter, the plant will grow in scarified limestone, marl, or various other soils if it is given adequate care. Optimum pH ranges from 5.5 to 6.7. On rich organic soils the pawpaw makes lush growth and bears heavily but the fruit are of low quality. It is recommended that no herbicides are used due to the little woodyness of the paw paw tree stem which may end up damaged.

SEEDS

Seeds may be planted directly in the field, or seedlings raised in beds or pots may be transplanted when 6 weeks old or even up to 6 months of age, though there must be great care in the handling process. The longer the delay the greater the risk of dehydrated or twisted roots; also, transplanting often results in trunk-curvature in windy locations.

PLANTING

The pawpaw/papaya is a tropical and near – tropical species, very sensitive to frost and limited to the region between 32° north and 32° south of the equator. It needs plentiful rainfall or irrigation but must have good drainage. Flooding for 48 hours is fatal.

FERTILIZATION

The fast – growing pawpaw requires regular applications of nitrogen fertilizers but the exact rates have not been established. Feed monthly and adjust according to the plant’s response. They can take fairly hot organic fertilizing such as chicken manure if used with deep irrigation after warm weather has started.

POLLINATION

If a pawpaw plant is inadequately pollinated, it will bear a light crop of fruits lacking uniformity in size and shape. Therefore, hand – pollination is advisable in commercial plantations that are not entirely bisexual. Bags are tied over bisexual blossoms for several days to ensure that they are self- pollinated. The progeny of self-pollinated bisexual flowers are 67% bisexual, the rest being female.

Fruit farming is a profitable business that has evolved over the years from small scale – backyard gardens to a global industry in all countries where it’s carried out. If you want to start your own successful farming operation and create some jobs for people, the best way is to start with a proper and well-structured business plan.

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HOW TO START A GRAPHIC DESIGN BUSINESS

                    

Over the years, the graphic design industry has experienced tremendous growth; from the use of crayons, colors, paints, markers and pencil, to the use of desktop publishing and graphic art software. Beyond every reasonable doubt, a graphic designer cannot be effective and efficient in this dispensation without the use of computers and computer software applications.

Everyone will quite agree that the graphic design industry has come to stay and of course it is one industry that plays key roles – not only in the business world, but also in nearly all the aspects of what goes around in our world today. For instance; organizations with top notch logos hire the services of a graphic artist.

PORTFOLIO

Creating a strong portfolio is the best possible way to attract clients in the graphic design industry. It’s a chance for you to display some of your best work and get recognized by people who need the services your business offers. However, in order to get there, you first need to do some graphic design work and create graphic’s you can feature in your portfolio. It’s a good idea to do some pro – bono work or come up with your own projects that’ll allow you to showcase your skills.

FINANCE

You can’t start a business without money, simply as that, graphic designers now use expensive equipment and investing in the finest tools is a must if you want to stay ahead of the pack. The best way to obtain finance for your business is by developing a professional business plan to enable you to obtain a business loan for your business.

CONTRACT

According to the pros, some clients take work and don’t pay the graphic designer who did it. This happens even more now since the most or all communication with your clients is done through the web. Therefore, make sure that you design a contract that includes all variables, key dates, and payment terms before you even start doing any work, specially if it includes using expensive equipment.

SOCIAL MEDIA

Social media is the perfect place for graphic designers to showcase their work. After you’ve done creating your website, we recommend creating pages on platforms such as Facebook and Instagram, and using them to attract new clients.

The graphics design business has really opened up over the years and this can be especially attributed to the advent of the Internet. A whole lot of things have really caused the business to boom and in turn attract people to start the trade as well.

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HOW TO START A PURIFIED WATER BUSINESS?

                                 

A water purification company is a business that converts waste or impure water into clean, crystal clear water that is healthy for drinking, cooking and useful for other uses. A water treatment business offers a lucrative way to improve health and quality of life. The residential water purification market is a multi-billion dollar industry that has grown and diversified over the years, as water softeners, media filtration systems and carbon filters are common fixtures in South African homes.

Clean water is essential for every human being, for drinking, cooking and other daily uses purposes like: bathing, brushing, washing clothes etc. It not just make our life healthier but also fulfills the hygiene purpose.

There is a growing demand for purified water. Apart from the initial cost of setting up a water purification business, you spend less on the everyday running of the business. This is because water which is your number one raw material can be sourced from anywhere at a very cheap cost or even free, depending where you source it from.

BENEFITS OF PURIFIED WATER

Better flavorSome contaminants can effect drinking water flavor, like a metallic taste or other unpleasant taste. Purified water removes contaminants and enhances the flavor of drinking water without the need to boil it. Moreover, most water delivery services offer flavored bottled water as well.

Lower risk of diseases – Chemicals and toxic materials can find their way inside water sources, thereby increasing the risk of getting cancer or some other diseases. Getting rid of these by purifying your drinking water will go a long way in lowering the chance of getting cancer associated with these chemicals and toxic materials. 

Save Cost – Buying bottled water gives households the assurance that the water you are drinking doesn’t have contaminants. Technically, if you choose to install a purification system, there might be costs of maintenance and replacement etc.

Studies have shown that the global water purification market has been growing at a steady pace and will continue doing so.  The industry is powered mainly by the growing needs of a burgeoning world population.

HOW DO I START AND RUN A SUCCESSFUL WATER PURIFICATION BUSINESS? START BY COMPILING A PROFESSIONAL BUSINESS PLAN

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HOW PROFITABLE IS COFFEE FARMING IN AFRICA?

                        

Coffee farms and plantations cover approximately 9,600 square miles of the continent and roughly 25 countries in Africa benefit economically from coffee production. For nearly 10 million African households, coffee is the primary source of income.

Coffee beans grow on an attractive little plant with glossy green leaves and a compact growth habit. In their native habitat, they like to grow into medium sized trees, but the coffee plants are regularly pruned to a more manageable size by coffee plantation growers.

COFFEE PLANT VARIETIES

There are more than 120 species of plants in the genus. Arabica accounting for about 60-80 percent of all the consumed coffee in the world. Another popular coffee bean comes from the Canephora plant, which is also known as Coffee Robusta. These species comes from sub- Saharan Africa. It’s plants are more robust, however, the coffee beans are less favored because they tend to have a stronger, harsher taste. Arabica coffee beans tend to be sweeter with undertones of sugar, berries and fruit.

SOIL

A rich, peat-based potting soil with excellent drainage is beneficial. Coffee plants do not like limey soils, so if the plant is not thriving, add some organic matter like peat. Coffee plants can grow in soil that has a pH of 4 to 7. The ideal soil pH is closer to 6 – 6.5.

HARVESTING

Ripe coffee cherries are usually picked by hand. The main exception is Brazil, where the relatively flat landscape and immense size of the coffee fields allow for machinery use. Coffee trees yield an average of 2 to 4 kilos of cherries and a good picker can harvest 45-90 kilos of coffee cherries per day, and this will produce 9-18 kilos of coffee beans.

                   

COFFEE IS HARVESTED IN ONE OF 2 WAYS:

1. Strip Picked –  All the cherries are stripped off the branch at one time, either by machine or by hand.

2. Selectively Picked – Only the ripe cherries are harvested and they are picked by hand.

Coffee in Society

After water, coffee is the most popular drink worldwide with over 400 billion cups being consumed each year. It is enjoyed as part of a healthy, balanced diet and the pleasurable experience. Coffee drinking plays a key role in many cultures around the world, providing an occasion for friends, family and colleagues to connect.

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HOW DO I START A LAUNDROMAT BUSINESS?

           

Given the constant and growing need for clean clothes this is a very lucrative business to get involved in. Laundromats make it easier to get laundry done when customers either don’t have a washing machine at home, need to wash more clothing than their machines can handle at home or have to cope with severe weather conditions. Laundromats also sell detergents and soaps, dryer sheets, and other related items to help customers get their laundry done.

CUSTOMERS

Preferred clients are businesses and government institutions with long term services contracts. However, a laundromat also service the general public that provide a stream of revenue. Ideal customers are those living in apartments or poor neighborhoods where there are no on site laundry service or washers and dryers for self service.

ADDITIONAL SERVICES

One of the best ways to make your business more profitable is to offer additional services like:

– Shoe repairs;

– Dry – cleaning;

– Sell detergents;

– Sell dry cleaning bags; and

– Laundry bags.

You can also offer free or discounted wifi internet services for customers to help them ipass the time while they wait for their laundry.

LOCATION

Your location can make or break your laundromat operation. Being too near other laundromats could effect your ability to attract customers. In addition, being near a major road, having visible signage, offering lots of parking and located in a busy shopping centre will help you gain attention. Also consider the demographics of the area. A neighborhood of wealthy families is less likely to need a laundromat than an area with many apartments and young people.

MANAGEMENT

If your laundromat isn’t well maintained, you will battle attracting new customers and gaining any repeat customers. So, it is vital to hire staff that can clean and maintain your laundromat daily, or do it yourself. Furthermore, it is important to attend to all customer complaints personally and promptly.

ADVERTISING

You won’t be profitable if customers don’t know that your laundromat exist and that you offer great services. Consider placing advertisements and building an online presence to attract attention and to communicate with your customers. To maximize your laundromat’s profitability, create a smart business model and business plan. With hard work and prudent planning, you’re sure to find success.

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SUCCESSFUL SUGAR BEAN FARMING

                                            

Sugar beans have a very huge market because           they are consumed by almost every household and large institutions such a boarding schools and prisons. Sugar bean farming can be a very rewarding venture if the appropriate crop is planted in the right regions and at the right time with the right inputs. Sugar bean farmers should follow proper procedures on growing the crop starting from land preparation to harvesting.Like any other crop, sugar beans need basal fertilizers and respond to basal manure and fertilizer application.

Beans may be grown on a wide range of soils, but they generally prefer soils with some clay (>15%), and they are sensitive to soil acidity.. Beans are best grown during the cooler months of summer (January to April) on the Highveld or in winter in the Lowveld with irrigation. In the Highveld, sugar beans can be grown after frost occurrence.

VARIETIES

A number of varieties are available, from speckled sugar beans ( S.C. Bounty & S C Sharp types) to white broad beans. It is important to select the right variety for the intended market, as there are definite market preferences. The most preferred is the speckled type.

PLANTING

Plant when the soil is moist. Planting in rows has many advantages like:

 – you use the correct plant density;

 – weeding is easier; and

– harvesting takes less time.

1. Plant in rows which are 20 – 30cm apart. Within a row, plant seeds at 5 – 7cm apart.

2. Plant seeds at a depth of about 5cm.

3. Fill gaps one to two weeks after planting and when plants have emerged.

                                                                                 

APPLYING FERTILIZER

Sugar beans needs phosphorus at planting. Good fertilizer types for sugar beans are SSP or compound L. Although sugar beans can fix nitrogen, it often benefits from a small starter dose of nitrogen from fertilizer. Fertilizer types that supply both phosphorus and nitrogen are compound L, compound D or NPK.

HARVESTING

Start harvesting sugar beans when the leaves and pods are dry and yellow brown. Harvest by handpicking dry pots or by cutting the plans at ground level using a sickle. Leave the roots on the farm to improve soil fertility.  Dry the pods or the plants with pods in the sun on a clean surface like a mat, plastic sheet or tarpaulin, or on a raised platform. Dry for about one day and do not dry the pods on the soil.

LAND SELECTION.

Select fertile to moderately fertile land with no water logging. Sugar beans does not tolerate acidic soils. Think about the rotation scheme for the field you want to plant. To prevent diseases do not plant beans in the same field you used for beans last season.

TO START AND RUN A SUCCESSFUL AND PROFITABLE SUGAR FARM OPERATION YOU WILL NEED A PROFESSIONAL AND BANKABLE BUSINESS PLAN. CONTACT US NOW FOR MORE INFORMATION AT – (27) 84 583 3143 OR EMAIL: money@global.co.za

                       

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HOW PROFITABLE IS A CONTAINER SMALL BUSINESS?

                                                                               

Containers are made of steel and built to withstand all kinds of weather, heavy stacking etc. A typical container work lifespan is approximately 10 years. Containers are designed specifically to be portable. You can transport almost any container and place it just about anywhere. A container is cheaper than building a brick and mortar building from scratch. A used container is the least expensive option, although for a better look, a new container is recommended. Either way, a container can easily be painted to blend with your surroundings.

Due to high construction costs more and more companies are turning to non- traditional facilities for their business operations. Containers in particular can be very utilitarian and cost effective.

CONTAINER BUSINESS IDEAS

Coffee Shop – The container and space can be used as a coffee shop where you can serve a variety of beverage options as ell as take away food.

Clothing Retailer – Containers can provide the space you need to run any kind of small retail business like a clothing boutique. If you need more space you can even stack the containers.

Restaurant – An increasing number of enterprising business owners are housing restaurants in remodel led containers. They serve as cost – effective premises that are easy to modify and transport.They’re secure and weather resistant, and provide novelty value.

Meal Prep Service – Another very popular type of food business is to create prepared meals that can be sold directly to consumers on site or as take away.

Hair Salon – Simply, one-on-one service businesses can also work in containers. Containers and the space necessary could be used to set up your own hair salon operation.

Office Containers – Whether you are looking for additional office space or temporary on-site offices containers can provide an affordable solution. These can be fully customized and fitted with the required amenities. Containers are also ideal for student accommodation and school facilities as can be seen below.

                                                                                     

Furthermore, “container homes” are quick to set up, sturdy, and much cheaper than building your average brick – and – mortar houses. If successfully implemented, container houses might decrease the significant housing shortage problem currently faced by so many families across the country.

Even though container homes have been around for years, it has only been the last 5 years that the building technique has become a viable alternative option. Through innovative insulation techniques, latest building materials and expertise built up over years, the container home is now a beautiful sustainable way of building your dream house.

Container homes are fast becoming a popular and more affordable to normal housing, which is priced beyond what the average South African can afford. A customizable and transportable container home can start from as little as ZAR 100 000. It also create huge opportunities for real estate developers/entrepreneurs to enter in a very lucrative market.

IF YOU NEED HELP IN THIS AREA OR WANT TO KNOW MORE HOW YOU CAN START AND RUN A SUCCESSFUL CONTAINER BUSINESS CONTACT US NOW AT: (+27) 84 583 3143 or Email – money@global.co.za

                                                                                       

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HOW TO START A MANGO FARM OPERATION

                                                                            

Mangoes are grown over a wide area in South Africa. However, the main production areas are in the Northern Province with Tzaneen, Hoedspruit, Phalaborwa, Letsitele and Trichardsdal area accounting for 60% of the total production. Mango trees will grow and produce well in areas with very high temperatures (45 degrees C). However, when the maximum temperature exceeds 46 degrees C vegetative growth ceases, especially if it is accompanied by low humidity. In South Africa the average relative humidity should preferably be 55% or less, from October until the fruit is harvested.

SOIL REQUIREMENTS

Mango trees grow on a slight slope which enables runoff of excess water and prevents water-logging. Depressions or basins are poorly drained and plantings on these sites should be avoided. The roots will turn black and become desiccated in over-saturated soils as a result of a lack of aeration. Under such conditions the parts of the plant above the ground will wilt and show symptoms of chlorosis. Mango trees do not row and produce well in soils with impermeable layers and also do not thrive on very steep slopes because excessive drainage could lead to water shortages and soil erosion.

PLANTING PROCEDURE

Although mango orchards are planted throughout the year (especially in the warmer production regions) the best time is August to September after the risk of cold weather had passed. After proper soil preparation the holes for planting should be large enough for the bag containing the tree to fit inside. Cut the bags open before planting to ensure that the trees have well developed root systems and that the roots are undamaged. Irrigation systems should already be installed before planting the trees. As soon as active growth is observed after planting, each tree should receive 4 applications of 25g LAN at intervals of 6 weeks, i.e. a total of 100g for the first year.

HARVESTING

Local Market – If mango fruit is to be marketed locally, it can be allowed to mature for longer periods on the tree. This will give it a better color and flavor. However, if the fruit is left on the tree for too long, it will drop in a process known as spontaneous ripening.

Export – Only the best quality mangoes is suitable for export, as it has to undergo transport and cold storage for 28 days in order to reach foreign markets buy sea. Fruit packed too green will never ripen properly whereas overripe fruit will spoil as a result of softening and the development of various diseases. It is therefore important to start picking at the correct stage.

TREE SELECTION

When you’re buying mango trees, you’ll need to look for signs that the tree is in good health. Take a look at the signs of a quality tree:

– Green and gleaming foliage;

– Long inter-nodes;

– Healthy graft union and blossoms;

– Containers should be a minimum of 10L as a precaution against stunted root growth.

NEED TO KNOW MORE OR NEED A PROFESSIONAL, BANKABLE FARMING BUSINESS PLAN CALL US NOW AT: (27) 84 583 3143 or EMAIL: money@global.co.za

                                 

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