Beans come in one of two types – bush beans and pole beans. Bush Beans differ from pole beans in the fact that bush beans don’t need any kind of support to stay upright. Pole Beans, on the other hand, need a pole or some other support to stay upright. Bush Beans are shorter beans that only grow to about 2 feet in height, while pole beans grow to about 8 – 10 feet in height.
Bush Beans can be further broken down into 3 types:
snap beans – pods are eaten.
green shelling beans – beans are eaten green.
dry beans – beans are dried and then rehydrated before eating.
Beans grow best in full sun, planted in well – drained and warm soil. Prepare soil ahead of time. When planting, add a mature or aged compost and this should be all the fertilizer you need if you are starting with a healthy soil. Beans will do best with a soil PH of 5,5 – 5,8. Beans are very sensitive to acidic soils.
Plant beans anytime between 10 – 28 days before the last frost date and 80 – 133 days before the first frost date. Sow beans where they are to grow, their supports, or, for bush types, four to 6 inches (10 – 15cm) apart with 18 inches (45cm) spacing between rows. Bush Beans should be planted in linear rows to support each other. Use a hoe to scratch out rows or dig individual planting holes with a trowel. Drop in two to three seeds per hole, so they fall about an inch (2cm) apart, and are two inches (2,5cm – 5cm) deep.
Water in the morning so the plants can dry rapidly and avoid fungal disease. Water moderately to 1/2 inch of water per week, avoid watering the plant tops. Beans require a minimum of 400 to 500mm rain fall during its rowing season but totals of 600 – 650mm is considered ideal.
After harvesting your beans, plant your cabbages on the same field, as beans leave a lot of nitrogen in the soil and this will help you harvest healthy and big cabbages.
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Saffron is collected from the blossoms of Crocus sativus(Iridaceae) commonly known as saffron crocus or saffron bulbs. It is propagated by bulbs called corms. Each corm forms new bulbs, and this is how the plant multiplies. The process is tedious and meticulous. This explains why saffron spice came to be so precious as to be called the “red gold”.
The Crocus sativus grows in many different soil types but thrives best in calcareous, humus – rich and well-drained soil with a pH between 6 and 8. Saffron corms can also grown in dry or semi-dry soil types. However, you need to keep in mind that during periods of drought in autumn and spring, you need to be able to irrigate the land. If you plant the saffron corms in wet or semi-wet soil types you must be sure that your land is well – drained to prevent corms from rotting or getting infected during periods of wet weather.
When planting saffron virgin patch of land, corms for the first time, choose a virgin patch of land, that is, no other tubers or saffron corms have been planted there before, if possible. Before planting, it is advisable to till the soil 20 to 50 centimetres deep to keep the planting beds loose and well – aired, incorporating organic fertilizer during the process. Saffron crocuses are sun- worshipping plants so they love to be planted in the dry open fields rather than in the shade.
Mulching will control the weed growth to some extent. Plants should be mulched with saw dust. Weedicides can be used to check the complete weeds in the saffron field.
Farmers should apply about 35 tonnes of well decomposed farm yard manure in the field before planting. Annual fertilizer application of 20kg “N”, 30 kg “K” and 80kg “P” per h/a is beneficial in autumn and again immediately after flowering.
Generally, 150 to 160 Saffron flowers are needed to make 1 gram of dried saffron. Usually, during the 1st year of plantation 60 -65% of corms will produce 1 flower each and in the subsequent years each corm will produce about 2 flowers.
Saffron is being used in culinary as well as medicines. Saffron is mainly used in culinary seasoning and to get colour, cottage cheese, Biryanis, meats, liquors, cordials, cakes, confectioneries, breads and Mughlai dishes. Saffron is used commercially in perfumes and cosmetics. When it comes to medicinal use, Saffron is used in fevers, Ayurvedic treatment to heal arthritis, impotence and infertility.
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Many public and private hospitals are running these days and fulfilling the needs of the society and generating income. Still, the need for more hospitals and healthcare services are increasing day by day. Specialized hospitals in any medical field are also working in the health care industry like children hospitals etc. The healthcare industry is also becoming selective in the hiring of new employees as they are focusing on trained and specialized staff for the hospital. Starting a hospital is a good idea and a secure investment.
A hospital business is a technical venture and need proper planning and a strategy. You can’t merely buy a place and hire doctors to start the venture. You must know the number of people you are targeting for the hospital because it will help to develop the strategy. It is important to take advice and help from the experts so that you won’t ignore the basic issues.
The business of hospitals and health care organizations is one of the most emerging industries and globally adopted by people from all over the world. It is a profitable as well as a long – term stable business. As we know health is an essential need of the society, hence the importance of health management services and organizations can never be underestimated.
Starting a new healthcare venture requires a thorough understanding of the national/government as well as public policy. You need to understand how people deal with the matters related to health and what are their requirements.
Health care services and new hospitals are one of the fastest expanding industries in the world. Its growth depends upon the needs of society. The wealth and development of a nation are dependent upon its health.
Healthcare service providers or organizations are a very serious concern in every part of the world. In fact, the healthcare industry consumes a vast amount of a country’s budget because providing the best health care services to people is the most important task.
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A food truck business can simply be classified as a restaurant on the go (mobile restaurant) . A Food Truck is essentially a large truck that is equipped with the necessary gadgets to cook and conveniently sell foods. It is a business venture that has come to stay; a business that is gaining momentum as the years roll by.
Food Trucks are more popular today than ever before. You’ve likely seen them at festivals, birth day parties, weddings, and other special events. In addition, since the Covid – 19 pandemic began, many patrons opt for grabbing meals from food trucks instead of visiting restaurants.
While the restaurant industry has grown about 2% in recent years, food trucks have skyrocketed at an annual growth rate of 8%. The food truck craze shows no sign of slowing down as people view food trucks as a fun and affordable way to try new foods.
More and more people are realizing the growth of this industry and pursuing their own food truck ventures as a result. Here’s why: they require a much smaller initial investment than a restaurant.
While a food truck is typically easier and more affordable to start and operate than a restaurant, it does take some time and effort to ensure success. There are certain strategies that can help you stand out from other food trucks, gain new customers, retain loyal ones, and maximize your profits.
Also, while there may already be a lot of food truck business ideas in your neighbourhood, the market for food trucks is far from saturated. There’s still an idea floating around your community that no one has pursued. It’s something worth exploring. It’s less risky than trying to open a (brick – and – mortar) business or something on a greater scale. Even if you don’t end up being successful with a truck, you could flip it and sell it or you could try something new.
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Maize is the most important grain crop in South Africa, being both the major feed grain and the staple food for the majority of the South Africa population. About 60% of the maize produced in South Africa is white and the other 40% is yellow maize. Yellow maize is mostly used for animal feed production while white maize is primarily produced for human consumption.
Maize is planted from October to December, after enough rain has fallen to let the seed germinate. There is a great variation in planting time between the eastern and western production regions, because of differences in temperatures, rainfall and the duration of the growing season. It can take anything between 90 to 120 days for maize to grow to its harvest period, depending on the variety and climatic conditions.
Maize can be harvested by hand with a sickle, but are harvested with machines on commercial farms where farmers need to harvest hundreds of hectares within a specific time. Maize is generally left in the field until the moisture percentages reach between 12,5% to 14%, but it can be harvested with a dry matter content of 30 – 38% if it will be used to make silage.
Maize needs a dry soil in the spring, but not a soil type that will dry out too much in late spring when the young plants are developing. Growing maize on heavy, day – type soils is probably the biggest handicap when trying to get the best out of this crop because of the difficulty in creating the correct seed – bed in the spring. Medium loams that are easy to work with in the spring, free-draining and will warm up early in the season to enable the young plants to get the best possible start are the most favoured. Very free-draining and light sandy soils can be too extreme.
Nitrogen is the driver and a lot of crops just don’t get enough because of an over- estimation of what the slurry can provide.
180 kg/ha of potash.
40 kg/ha of phosphate.
150 kg/ha of Nitrogen.
Ideally, the application of nitrogen should be split with 75% in the seedbed and the remaining 25% applied at the 1-3 leaf stage. This will help the crop get through its yellow phase often seen at emergence.
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Amaranthus or Amaranth or Amaranths is one of the oldest warm climate leafy vegetable crops grown since centuries. At present Amaranth is extensively grown as a green leafy vegetable in many temperate and tropical regions in the world.
Amaranth is a wonderfully versatile plant that’s a beautiful flower, a delicious vegetable, and a nutritious grain all in one. It even has medicinal qualities. Amaranth has a high nutrient value and is a popular super food worldwide. Because it can withstand harsh climatic conditions, it is also an attractive crop to farm.
World demand for amaranth has sky- rocketed since the 1970’s due to a growing awareness of its health properties, including that it is gluten free. The grain can be milled into flour and the leaves can be eaten like greens.
Generally, the plant prefers warm weather. However, you can also grow amaranth in the temperate climate during summer. Actually, the plant has efficient photosynthetic abilities and responds best in full sunlight. Additionally, the crop is resistant to drought thus it does not require as much moisture as other crops.
Generally, growing amaranth is possible on all types of soil. However, the loam soil is most suitable for its cultivation. Fine seedbed is necessary for this crop and you can prepare a suitable bed by repeated plowing.
You can grow the crop both in the summer and rainy seasons and in the temperate zone, you can start the plantation before 6 to 8 weeks of the last frost. The seeds of this crop are very small and is sown in flatbeds after mixing those with fine soil for good distribution.
You can transplant the seedlings after raising them in the nursery during the rainy season at a spacing of 45cm from row to row and 30cm from plant to plant. You will need about one kilogram of seed for sowing one acre.
You can start harvesting when the plants turn yellow or deep brown in color. Growing Amaranth is a very lucrative opportunity for farmers and entrepreneurs that have sufficient land. Within a short duration of time, you can expect a good return from this business.
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Cleome (Cleome gynandra) is a widespread herb that occurs in South Africa from Limpopo to Namibia. Cleome gynandra is a species of Cleome that is used as a green vegetable. It is known by many common names like Shona cabbage, African cabbage, spiderwisp, cat’s whiskers, chin saga, and stinkweed.
Cleome belongs to the Capparaceae family. This herbaceous, erect, and annual plant grows to a height of between 0,5m and 1,5m, depending on the environment. It is a branched plant, sometimes becoming woody with age.
Cleome is sensitive to cold and does not grow well when temperatures drop below 15ºC. It grows well when the temperature is above 27ºC. Because of its tropical origin, cleome is believed to be day-length – insensitive, but some cleome species are facultative long – day species (not restricted to a particular function).
Cleome prefers well – drained medium – textured soils and does not grow well in poorly drained or heavy clay soils. It also prefers sandy loam soils, rich in organic matter and responds well to well – decomposed manure. Flowering is delayed when adequate manure is available, allowing more larger leaves to develop.
Seeds are planted at a shallow depth to ensure emergence and a good field stand. Plant seeds in seed beds or plant directly in rows in the field. Mix seeds 1:10 with sand or dry soil before planting.
Water requirements vary with the crop’s growth stage, soil type, and weather conditions (hot or cold). Frequent irrigation will be required for sandy soils as these drain quickly. Clay soils, on the other hand, drain quite slowly and hold more water than sandy soils.
Leaves: Cleome is harvested in summer during the first rains and can be harvested until autumn. Leaf harvesting starts four to six weeks after seeding emergence and it may last four to five weeks.
Seeds: Seeds can be harvested when pods are fully ripe and yellow but before they open naturally to prevent shattering.
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Pumpkins are grown yearly in South Africa. Pumpkins are being produced countrywide in South Africa with the main areas being: Mpumalanga, Vryburg, Western Cape, and Vereniging. About 40 000 h/a of pumpkins are grown yearly in South Africa.
Recommended cultivars are:
Carving – Autumn Gold, Gost Rider – takes 90 days to mature.
Small / Pie Type – Amish Pie, small sugar – takes 90 days to mature.
Giant Pumpkin – Big Max, Big Moon – takes 120 days to mature.
Growers supplying wholesale markets want heavy and uniformly sized pumpkins with strong, dark – colored stems and a deep, bright colour. Growers should keep track of the many new varieties of pumpkins available each year, consider the market, and plant varieties that are best suited to their operations.
Pumpkins grow well and produced excellent quality fruit in rich, light – textured soils. Sandy loam or well-drained loamy fertile soils, ideally deeper than 1000mm, are ideal for pumpkins. However, heavier soils can also be used as long as the drainage is adequate. The optimum soil pH is between 6 and 7.5.
Planting on a raised bed promotes drainage, so the roots do not have to deal with constant wetness, which leads to disease problems. The seeds can be planted directly in the site where they will mature. Pumpkins are usually planted in hills. Plant two to three seeds per hill about 2,5cm deep and later thin to one plant per hill.
The plants respond to liberal dressings of manure and compost, which also help the soil to retain moisture. Pumpkins appreciate to be treated generously throughout their growth period. Good feeding for pumpkins is liquid manure applied at intervals of 2 – 3 weeks, starting when the first flower buds open.
Most pumpkins reach maturity at 3 or 4 months after sowing. The fruit is harvested when the skin becomes hard and lose its shiny appearance.
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Many niche markets have a need for reliable services, and this is where a small delivery service business can achieve success. One big part of the business is the transportation of cargo. Large and Small businesses alike need to transport inventory, so they need reliable service.
Benefits of this type of Business include:
Access to many potential customers.
Minimal equipment costs.
No requirements for experience or education.
As you think about the deliveries your business will handle, you’ll need to select a vehicle that maximizes cargo space. If you’re moving cargo like medical tests, paperwork or other small items, a transit or cargo van will work well. For larger deliveries, such as furniture, a box truck is a better option.
When you start a delivery service, you may need additional items such as padding, dollies, and straps to secure the cargo. These items may not be available through financing with the vehicle you select, but make sure to plan to buy the necessary items as part of the initial investment. If your delivery service will only handle small packages, a compact car or SUV could offer enough space.
Fast food deliveries such as Uber Eats and Mr D don’t operate in South Africa’s townships and rural areas and therefore create a huge opportunity for inspiring entrepreneurs to start a small delivery business in these areas.
Electric scooters deliver packages, food and other goods quickly, smoothly, quietly, and very cost effectively. Electric scooters need very little servicing keeping your investment on the road and working for you.
Although it is really hard to pinpoint to a location in these remote areas, you can hire local drivers with intimate knowledge of their communities, landmarks, and the maze of UN-mapped streets which weave through the particular township.
To limit high petrol costs, electric scooters, who can be fully charged and allow drivers to travel around 90km can be leased from a reliable supplier.
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“Biodiesel” is very different from the normal diesel many of us know. The diesel we’ve used to is produced by “refining petroleum” (also known as crude oil). Crude oil can only be found deep beneath the earth’s surface, from where it is recovered and and refined into several products including – petrol (gasoline) kerosene, and diesel.
Biodiesel is not in any way related to or made from crude oil. Biodiesel is a renewable and clean burning type of diesel that is made from vegetable oils. It can be made from most types of vegetable oils including soy bean oil, canola oil, palm oil and most other popular oils.
The main reasons why the popularity of biodiesel is growing across the world include:
Individuals and businesses are looking for more ways to reduce waste. This is why reuse and recycling have become a big deal nowadays. Millions of liters cooking oil are daily flushed down the sink or sucked into the drain. These can be recycled into a highly valued product that can power trucks and generators.
Cleaner and Eco – friendly fuels
Biodiesel is biodegradable and non-toxic ( has a low sulphur content and doesn’t contain carcinogens), making it more sensitive and relatively harmless to the environment. As the pressure to further combat climate change increases around the world, it is expected that the volume of biodiesel that is blended with normal diesel will increase. Sometime in the near future cars and trucks could run on 100 % biodiesel.
Dependence on crude oil products
To avoid any future surprises from the unpredictability of global oil prices, more countries around the world are looking at locally accessible energy sources to up their supplies and to protect them from oil price shocks. Biodiesel is an interesting option for anyone who’s looking to diversify or compliment their energy supply sources. Both virgin and used vegetable oils are abundantly produced in South Africa, and this makes it possible for biodiesel to be produced anywhere in the world.
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Regular and proper solar panel maintenance is a vital part of:
maintaining solar panel efficiency.
generating more electricity from solar and
preventing breakdowns or expensive repairs in the future.
While on – demand solar maintenance can be useful – especially after events that may have caused damage -solar installation longevity benefits most from regular, scheduled maintenance. Ideally, a solar panel system should get a professional inspection or preventative maintenance on a regular basis, especially in areas that see significant seasonal weather.
Regular maintenance of any solar panel system should ensure:
solar panels are clean, secure and free of defects.
no parts have deteriorated/ corroded.
vents are free of debris.
switches do not have any defects.
wiring has not been damaged/ has not deteriorated.
electrical checks to ensure all components are operating as intended.
confirming fittings and cables are securely attached.
reviewing the inverter display panel for recorded faults.
checking that access to the isolator switches has not been impeded, and/or
making sure the emergency procedures for shutdown and isolation are clearly displayed.
The Solar Panel Maintenance industry has galloped ahead in recent years as a result of the rapid technological developments in our world and favorable government policies. In the coming years, demand for solar panel installations and maintenance services is projected to continue growing.
As an aspiring entrepreneur who is ready and committed to build a business that will survive in the future, you should build your business along the line of new technology. One of such businesses that can be categorized under new technology is the solar panel installation and maintenance business.
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The technical meaning of maintenance involves:
* functional checks.
* repairing or replacing necessary devices, equipment & machinery.
* building infrastructure, and supporting utilities in industrial, business, and residential installations.
Maintenance, repair and overhaul (MRO) include the following:
1. Preventive Maintenance, also known as PM.
2. Planned Maintenance, where equipment is repaired or replaced after wear, malfunction or break down.
3. Predictive Maintenance, which uses sensor data to monitor a system, then continuously evaluates it against historical trends to predict failure before it occurs.
PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE (PM)
This is a routine for periodically inspecting, with the goal of noticing small problems and fixing them before major ones develop. The main goal is for the equipment to make it from one planned service to the next without any failures caused by fatigue, neglect or normal wear.
# Enhance Capital Equipment productive life.
# Reduce critical equipment breakdown.
# Minimize production loss due to equipment failures.
Planned maintenance or scheduled maintenance, is any variety of scheduled maintenance to an object or item of equipment. Specifically, planned maintenance is a scheduled service visit carried out by a competent and suitable agent, to ensure that an item of equipment is operating correctly and to therefore avoid any unscheduled breakdown and downtime.
Predictive Maintenance techniques are designed to help determine the condition of in – service equipment in order to estimate when maintenance should be performed. This approach provides cost savings over routine or time – based preventive maintenance, because tasks are performed only when warranted.
When companies does not take care of their assets, machines, and equipment efficiently they may end up in a loss situation. This can be avoided if equipment maintenance is done. It also create huge opportunities for entrepreneurs that want to start their own successful and sustainable businesses and to cater for this market.
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Citrus is divided into four groups:
Soft Citrus – Clementine / Mandarins.
Clementine is the world’s premier mandarin. They easy to peel and if grown in single blocks away from cross – pollinating varieties, the fruit is seedless. When mature, the peel turns bright orange. Clementines has a distinctive sweet taste and flavour.
Clementine trees flourish in full to partial sunlight. Even though they prefer full sun , they can tolerate shade. Sandy soil is best for Clementine trees, but they will adapt to natural soil. To make soil sandier, mix in sand or a fine potting mix. Just make sure that the soil is well- draining.
Early spring is the best time for transplanting. Planting holes of 0,5 x 0,5 x 0,5m are prepared ad the soil mixed well with 2 spadefuls of compost or kraal manure and 250g of super-phosphate. Once the tree has been planted, the soil must be firmly tramped down. A basin for irrigation is made around the tree which must be thoroughly irrigated immediately after planting. Irrigate again the following day to seal any cracks in the soil.
During the first year, nitrogen may be applied every 2 months. Any of the following nitrogen fertilizers may be applied:
6 Applications of 25g limestone ammonium nitrate (LAN 28%) per tree or
6 Applications of 16g urea (46%) per tree per year or
6 Applications of 36g ammonium sulphate (21%) per tree per year.
From the second year , nitrogen must be applied twice a year , half in July and half in March. Fertilizer should be spread evenly under the canopy of the tree and irrigated. Phosphorus may be applied at any time of the year, one application should be sufficient. Potassium should also be applied once, early in spring.
During the first 6 months the trees should be irrigated twice a week and thereafter every 7 days. The irrigation basin should be gradually enlarged as the tree grows, so that it is always slighter bigger than the drip line of the tree.
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Containers are used to establish a variety of business ideas worldwide. Containers are mobile and versatile and offer a wide range of possibilities for innovative entrepreneurs. These include – but not limited to:-
Containers can provide enough space for a variety of retail options. Retail shops that are doing well in a container – sized space are clothing, antiques, gifts, and used book shops to name a few. Multiple containers can also be placed or linked together to make a “shopping mall” for a variety of retail shops. They also ideal in the rural communities where people are far from their nearest shopping centre.
Containers are easily converted. Doors, windows, counters and desks can affordably and effortlessly be added to make the container more user friendly. Considering this, running a small, or large, restaurant from a container is a unique, Eco – friendly and quirky option for someone who doesn’t want to over-capitalize on building or rental costs.
Investing in containers to rent out can be a lucrative business option. Containers make ideal tiny homes and can be kitted out either as a permanent rental or for holiday lets.
Containers can be an excellent asset to farming entrepreneurs by earning farmers extra revenue. Hydroponic vegetable growing systems have been successfully installed in containers. These organic growing systems in a 40ft container can produce up to an acre’s worth of crop yields. Being compact and movable, containers can also be placed close to crops and plantations where they can serve as a farmer’s marketplace for freshly produce.
Mobile performance venues have become very popular in South Africa. A single container, which can be converted to have drop-down sides, makes an ideal stage for music and other type of performances. Not only is it easy and affordable to set up, but it also makes a perfect mobile unit.
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Cherry trees can only be grown in certain areas of South Africa. They prefer cold winters and don’t like hot summers, wind and frost. In addition, cherry trees are sensitive to root phytophthora and boll-worm. Birds love cherries and can devour up to 10% of the harvest. Growing cherries under netting is a solution to this problem.
Cherries are a crop with short harvest season. The cherry harvest in South Africa starts from week 41 – the second week in October, and ends around week 51 – the end of December, but certain varieties and late harvesting in some areas can extend the season into mid January.
Cherries are used to make cherry liqueurs and wines. Other cherry products such as cherry sauces, jams, canned and glazed cherries are also produced in South Africa. Dried, powered, freeze- dried and powered cherries in capsules are also available. But cherry concentrate (for juice etc) is imported.
Sweet cherry farming in South Africa started with the planting of cherry cultivars such as Early River, Early Red Five, Giant Heidelfinger and Bing. There are a large number of cherry varieties planted in South Africa, these include Royal Hazel, Royal Dawn, Royal Lynn, Royal Edie and Royal Helen. The most popular one grown by an individual producer is the red flavorful newcomer Royal Hazel. This is a variety with a good shelf life, is suitable for shipping and is already making up 10% of South Africa’s total plantings, of just under 390h/a. Other cherry cultivars also planted on large scale include Royal Edie and Royal Helen.
Cherries are a non – climacteric fruit – this means it is picked fully ripe and does not ripen further after harvesting. Cherry – picking is labor intensive as it needs to be hand – picked with the stems intact. An orchard will be picked up to 6 times in a season. Harvested cherries need to be cooled to 0,5°C as soon as possible; this is often done using a hydro-cooler.
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Shallots (Eschalots) are members of the alium family, closely related to onions, garlic and chives. Shallot bulbs grow in clusters, similar to cloves of garlic. The biggest distinction between shallots and other onions, besides their milder flavor, is their cellular structure. Shallots break down much more easily when cooked, allowing for a softer level of caramelization, or a more subtle touch when creating a foundation in sources etc.
Shallots are packed with micro-nutrients such as magnesium, potassium, zinc, and B vitamins. It increase your intake of micro – nutrients, protein and fiber. Shallot differs from the everyday onion in some fundamental ways:
Firstly – Shallots grows like garlic, in clusters rather than single bulbs.
Secondly – Shallots has a softer flavor, bringing all the essence of an onion without the punch.
Thirdly – Shallots is smaller and a little more oval – shaped.
Fertile, well – drained soil with compost dug in. In clay soil, use raised beds or rows.
Single Plants – 15cm each way (minimum).
Rows – 10cm with 15cm row gap (minimum).
Easiest to sow as sets (tiny bulbs) which are planted direct into the soil from early winter onward. Can also be grown from seed in which case start in pots under cover in late winter before planting out mid spring.
It usually takes 2 months for the shallots to be ready for harvest. One signal that the bulb had reached its maturity is when the top part of the plant withers. Harvested shallots should be stored in cool places and it is advised that you put them inside a mesh or any other breathable storage,
Shallot farming is a profitable business due to the fact that it is not hard to plant and to maintain and is also in demand in the market. Shallots do not require a specific kind of climate to grow and can even grow healthy in a garden directly exposed to sunlight or shaded.
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Scientific Name – Pisum sativum L
Common Names – Matar (Hindi, Nepali) Pea, split pea, garden pea, seed pea, shelling pea. combining pea, field pea, dry pea, vining pea.
Family Name – Fabaceae
Commercially peas are grown almost in all parts of the cooler areas of South Africa, particularly in KZN, Brits and Rustenburg in North West, and in the Mpumalanga Lowveld. The pea is a green, pod-shaped vegetable, widely grown as a cool – season vegetable crop. There are generally three types of peas that are commonly eaten:
Garden or Green Peas (Pisum sativum).
Snow Peas (Pisum sativum var, macrocarpon).
Snap Peas (Pisum sativum var, macrocarpon ser. cv).
Peas can be grown on all types of soil but it prefers well- drained sandy loam soils.The soils should be rich in organic matter as it enhances better growth by supplying nutrients at a slower rate. It does not thrive in highly acidic or alkaline soils or saline type of soils. It grows best at a pH of 6.5. If the pH is less than 6.0, then then it should be amended to improve the soil conditions.
The field should be well prepared by 2 or 3 ploughings. The soil should not be much pulverized and fine. However, it must be free from weeds and stuble of the kharif crop grown earlier. Well- decomposed farmyard manure at 25 to 30 t/ha along with 100kg dolomite per hectare should be applied during final ploughing.
Peas are normally sown directly where they are to grow to maturity, but they can also be sown early in pots, in a greenhouse, to bring on plants for planting out. Otherwise sow early March, second sowing in April, third sowing in May and late sowing using early varieties in June or even into early July.
Garden pea is sown rather densely, with plant densities up to 80 plants per square metre. The seed should be sown 4 to 7cm deep. Approximately 60 to 200 kg/ha of seed is required. Plant peas 3 to 5cm deep and 2cm apart in single or double rows. Allow 46 to 60cm between single or pairs of rows. Allow 20 to 25cm between double rows in pairs.
Harvesting period: 58 to 74 days, depending on the variety and growing conditions (soil, temperature, and moisture).
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Fennel is an evergreen perennial which is usually grown as an annual in South Africa. However, in frost free regions fennel can be treated as a short lived perennial. In the cooler regions of South Africa, fennel seed can be sown from spring to autumn.
Because hot temperatures and humidity tend to induce bolting, in the rest of the country fennel is an excellent intermediate to cool season crop, sown in late summer or early spring before the weather gets too hot.
The fennel plants need to grow fast in order to produce the best quality bulbs and leaves so the beds need to be well prepared with lots of added compost or manure and a dressing of organic 2.3.2. Funnel crops sown in autumn may take up to 20 weeks to mature.
* Plant fennel seeds 1 to 3cm deep.
* Fennel plants can reach up to 1-5m and need some room to spread.
* Space fennel plants at least 50cm apart, with about 60cm between the rows.
* Protect fennel plants from extreme heat and wind.
* Water well until well established.
Fennel Health Benefits
* Fennel is good for digestion.
* Fennel is useful in the treatment of anemia.
* Fennel is extensively used for treating constipation, diarrhea, renal colic, respiration and menstrual disorders.
* Fennel helps in increasing iron absorption.
* Fennel is good for bone health.
* Fennel helps lowering blood pressure.
* Fennel may reduce getting cancer.
* Fennel boost immune power.
* Fennel helps in weight management.
* Fennel is good for skin health.
Type of Funnel
When it comes to selection a certain type of funnel, you can choose from the herb or bulb variety – both share a sweet aniseed flavor. Common fennel is widely available as a herb, but bronze fennel is well worth adding to your farming operation.
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Parsley is a biennial plant with bright green, feather- like leaves and is the same family as dill. This popular herb is used in sauces, salads, and especially soups, as it lessens the need for salt. Not only is parsley the perfect garnish, it’s also good for you: It’s rich in iron and vitamins A and C.
Parsley enjoys well – draining soil that is rich in organic matter. Pick a spot that gets full sun (6 to 8 hours of sunlight). Try to choose an area that is weed – free; that way you will be able to see the parsley sprouting after about 3 weeks.
Sow parsley seeds 1/4 inch deep. Sow seeds about 6 to 8 inches apart. For larger plants, sow about 8 to 10 inches apart. Be sure to keep soil moist while seeds germinate. It can take 2 to 4 weeks for seedlings to appear.
Pests / Diseases
* Stem rot.
* Leaf spots.
* Carrot fly and celery fly larvae.
When the leaf stems have three segments, parsley is ready to be harvested. Cut leaves from the outer portions of the plant whenever you need them. Leave the inner portions of the plant to mature. If you want fresh parsley throughout the winter, replant the parsley plant in a pot and keep it in a sunny window.
One method of storing the parsley fresh is to put the leaf stalks in water and keep them in the refrigerator. Another method of storage is drying the parsley. Cut the parsley at the base and hang it in a well- ventilated shady and warm place. Once it is completely dry, crumble it up and store it in an container.
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Beetroot is generally a widely adaptable crop that can be grown under most conditions throughout South Africa. Beetroot can be planted all year round but as a rule of thumb, areas where there could be frost conditions or excessive heat around planting time these should be avoided.
As seed is sown directly, fields need to be prepared correctly and thoroughly. The soil need to be well tilled, free of old plant material and have a good crumb structure. Good soil preparation can be achieved by ploughing, harrowing, and leveling prior to sowing. The ideal pH for beetroot production is between 6.0 and 8.0. Beetroot prefer deep, friable, well drained sandy loams to silt loams.
Good crop rotation will keep the soil healthy and fertile. Beetroot can safely be rotated with the following crops:
Onions and carrots.
More than 90% of beetroot producers sow the seed directly in the soil, but seed can also be sown in seedbeds, and then transplanted. Seed trays or other containers can also be used to raise seedlings but this is expensive because of the high cost.
Soil should be slightly moist before cutting or pulling beets. If the soil is too dry, roots maybe difficult to clean and the rate of top breakage maybe too high. For the best flavor and tenderness harvesting should begin when roots are 3-4cm in diameter. Handle beets carefully after harvesting to avoid damaging the roots. Any damage reduces shelf life and increases the chances of decay and disease.
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Spring onions add interest to many dishes. The white bulbs have a delicate oniong flavor while the long hollow leaves can be thinly sliced to add texture and color. Spring Onion seeds are sowed from March to August at 3 weekly intervals. Harvesting can start 8 weeks after sowing.
Spring Onions are very easy to grow for commercial purposes and consumers like them because they can be used in a variety of recipes. Spring onions are sometimes called: scallions, bunching onions, long green onions, Japanese bunching onions or salad onions. They are a good source of vitamins A, B and C and come in white and red color stemmed varieties.
The best soil for the Spring Onion crop is slightly acid, with a pH between 5.3 and 5.8 – using calcium chloride to measure the levels. Spring Onion crop is produced throughout the year.
Single plants – 10cm each way (minimum).
Rows – 10cm with 10cm row gap (minimum).
To sow Spring Onion seed outdoors, sow seeds thinly into shallow drills about 1,5cm deep with rows spaced 30cm apart. Water and keep the seeds environment moist. Once the Spring Onion seeds have germinated and developed into a substantial young plant, cover them with cloches.
Spring Onions like moderate moisture and water the onions when the soil is starting to dry around the onions. Be careful not to over-water the plant as you will get larger onions with a very weak flavor. Spring Onion plants need to be well watered throughout their growth.This is because of their short root length.
Generally, harvest Spring Onions after 8 weeks. Spring Onions are ready to eat once they reach about 6 inches in height with a thickness of about 1/2 inch. Usually, this takes approximately 8 weeks, but some may take a few weeks longer.
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What is a R.F.P.? – Request for Proposal.
Generally speaking, businesses that send a RFP know the “what” of their problem and need, but not necessarily the “how” it will be solved. The main concern of a business/farming proposal is finding the best solution. However,, a RFP is not to be confused with an invitation for bid – IFB. An IFB is sent when a business already knows what their need is and how they want to fulfill the need.
What is a business/farming proposal?
A proposal is a written document sent by a business to persuade a potential client to choose that specific business. They can be solicated or unsolicated, as long as they pertain to the prospect’s business and needs. When a proposal is requested through an RFP, however, your prospect is actively looking for the kind of solution your business provides.
What is the difference between a business proposal and a business plan?
Business Proposal – This is a document meant to persuade a person or business requesting a solution to their need or problem.
Business Plan – This is a document of your vision for your business and how you intend to achieve that vision. Business Plans include financial projections for the cost of your business development and operations. Also, an estimation of the revenue you expect your business to generate. Business or Farming/Agric Plans are not used to win over a prospect for their business, but business proposals may sometimes be used in a business or farming plan.
Your business or farming proposal is your opportunity to convince your buyer that they should choose your business rather than doing it themselves or using a different vendor or resource. When creating your proposal, approach it conversationally, as if you sitting across the table in front of the reader.
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Apricots in supermarkets have always been seen as a niche product and the new Carmingo range, offer a season extension. The product is a winner for consumers because of its good size, high natural sweetness and good shelf life.
Apricots thrive in areas with cold, dry winters and dry, hot summers. While they are produced throughout South Africa, the bulk of production takes place in the Western Cape under winter rainfall conditions.
Depending on climatic conditions, the production area and cultivar, the apricot season in South Africa takes place from November to March, with small volumes trickling in around April.
Apricots are high in fibre, vitamins, especially vitamins A and C, and minerals. The fruit and skin are edible, but the stone is discarded. Apricots can be enjoyed fresh or canned, pureed, dried, preserved or juiced. They are also used to make chutneys and are included in cooking.
Trees require a minimum of 4000 m3 water/ha per year. Production costs and labor are relatively similar to that of the older apricot cultivars but the establishment costs are significantly higher. This is working out at about R80/tree, as the plant material is subject to royalties.
Trees are usually planted at a density of 1000/ha spaced at 2,5m in the row and 4m between the rows, as these trees have a more upright growth. The fruit may be exported only by licensed exporters, which in South Africa are Icon Fruit, Delecta, Cape 5 and Stems.
To enable you to start successfully or to expand your farming operation you will need a Professional and well – structured Agric/Farming type of Business Plan.
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“Manufacturing” refers to a large – scale production of goods. The goods converts raw materials, parts, and components into finished merchandise using manual labor and/or machines. The finished goods can be sold directly to consumers, manufacturers or wholesalers.
A manufacturing business is any business that uses raw materials, parts and components to assemble finished goods, Manufacturing businesses often employ machines, robots, computers and humans to produce the merchandise. It typically use an assembly line, which enables a product to be put together step by step.
There are 3 main types of manufacturing production:
Make – to – Stock (MTS).
Make – to – Order (MTO).
Make – to – Assemble (MTA).
Make – to – Stock – (MTS) is a traditional manufacturing strategy that relies on past sales data. The data is used to forecast consumer demand and plan the production activity in advance. The drawback of this strategy is that it uses past data to predict future demand. This increases the likelihood of the forecast being off, leaving the manufacturer with too much or not enough stock.
Make – to – order – (MTO) – This allows customers to order products that are customized and manufactured to their specifications. The manufacturing process begins only after the order is received. So, the waiting time for the customer is longer, but the risk of excessive inventory is cut out.
Make – to – Assemble – (MTA) – This is a strategy that relies on demand forecasts to stock the basic components of a product. Assembling starts after the order is received. It’s a hybrid of MTS and MTO approaches. Customers can customize the products and receive them quicker because the manufacturer has the basic components ready. However, if orders don’t come in, the manufacturer is stuck with a stock of unwanted parts.
To reduce risks, any type of manufacturing business should focus on keeping production costs low. Also, maintaining good quality control and investing in excellent sales management.
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“Brinjals”or Eggplant” is a species of nightshade, and therefore related to the potato and tomatoes. Brinjal is a warm – season crop grown for its edible fruit. Good – quality brinjals can be grown in open lands across various parts of the country year – round.
Brinjals favor a well – drained loam to sandy loam soil. However, it will grow reasonably well in a wide range of different soil types. Certain criteria in terms of the soil structure and content must be met to make the crop commercially viable. These include nutrient composition, compaction, effective soil depth, pH, crop rotation, herbicide residue and the water- holding capacity of the soil.
Different varieties produce fruit of different sizes shapes and colors. This varying from white to yellow or green, reddish purple and dark purple. The currently favored cultivars produce a fruit that is egg-shaped, 12cm to 25 cm long and 6cm to 9cm in diameter, and has a dark purple skin.
Pick Brinjals/eggplant when the skin takes on a high gloss. To test, press the skin. If the indentation doesn’t spring back, that fruit is ready for harvest. To harvest clip the eggplant of the plant with pruning shears, keeping the cap and about 1 inch of the stem intact.
“Eggplants” will keep up to two weeks of refrigerated. If you cut open an eggplant fruit and find that the seeds inside have turned brown, the fruit is past prime quality and the flavor may be bitter. The best way to avoid this is by picking fruits on the young side. This is when they are a third or two- thirds of their fully mature size.
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“Broccoli” has become a far more important crop of late due to its reported health benefits. Broccoli is also much easier to grow than before. The best months for growing broccoli in South Africa is February, March and April.
“Broccoli” is worth growing for its nutritional content alone. The crop is rich in vitamins and minerals. It is a good source of Vitamin A, Potassium, Folid Acid, Iron and Fiber.
* Broccoli requires a site with exposure to full sun – (6-8 hours per day).
* Plant in a bed of moist, fertile soil that drains well.
* Soil pH should be slightly acidic, between 6.0 and 7.0
* Outdoors – sow seeds 1/2 inch deep and 3 inches apart.
* Indoors – plant transplants that are 4-6 weeks old, outdoors 12 – 20 inches apart. Plant in holes slightly deeper than their container depth.
* Space rows of broccoli should be 3 feet apart.
* Water well at the time of planting.
Broccoli grown from seed will come to harvest in 100 – 150 days. Grown from transplants broccoli will come to harvest in 55 to 80 days. Cut buds when they are still green and tight. Cut the central head with 5 to 6 inches of stem. Leave the base of the plant and some outer leaves to encourage new heads on secondary shoots.
In general, broccoli plants can be harvested two or three times and for a period up to 3 months. Broccoli should be harvested when the heads are small, tight and firm. If flower buds appear, it should be cut immediately.
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Cactus or prickly pear farming is enjoying renewed interest in South Africa. This is because of the drought and climate change as well as the commercial potential of a crop with abundant uses.
Prickly pear is a surprising simple cactus. Its easy and undemanding to grow. It is also hardy enough to survive in most climates, and boasts a cheery, delicate flower. Prickly pears are a cactus, so they need well- draining soil first and foremost. Plant them in full sun in a sandy or gravely mix and go easy on the water.
In order for the prickly pear to thrive, it needs to be planted in well-draining soil. Your best bet is a mixture that is dry, sandy, or gravelly. It can also do well in a mixture that is primarily clay, as long as it drains very well and soil does not retain much moisture. Prickly pear isn’t especially high – maintenance and can thrive in a neutral- to -acidic mixture with a pH level of 6.0 – 7.5
Prickly pear cactus is extremely drought tolerant so water it less than you think it needs. In most areas, your typical rainfall will be likely be enough for the cactus to thrive. If not, you can plan to water the plant every two to four weeks.
When planted outdoors in garden soil, no fertilizer is needed. However, occasional feeding may be required indoors. Use well-balanced fertilizer and let the plant tell you when it needs food. This will be when its green color starts to pale or it doesn’t flower, it should be fed.
Farmers use the cactus pear to make fodder and silage. Consumers eat the fruit, bio gas made from the plan can produce electricity. Furthermore, the fruit can be used to make oil, juice, jam, jelly, and chutney and the cladodes can be turned into salads. The ruit is also used to make beer, wine, mampoer or liqueurs.
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Kiwifruits also known as simply “kiwis” are a popular type of edible berry that grows on wines in temperature regions. If you want to grow a kiwi plant for its fruit, purchace a grafted plant from a nursery.
The three types of kiwi fruit are:
1. Common Kiwi – This is the type of kiwifruit typically found in grocery stores. It is a brown/fuzzy fruit with a thick skin and green pulp.
2. Golden Kiwi – Another popular type of kiwi. The golden kiwi is sweeter but more delicate compared to the common kiwi. It is closely related to common kiwifruit but less fuzzy and more yellow.
3. Kiwi Berry – This name usually refers to two different kiwi species, the hardy kiwi and the super-hardy kiwi. These kiwifruits are much smaller compared to common and golden kiwis and have a thinner smooth skin.
Development in the South Africa’s kiwifruit industry has been picking up pace over recent years. There are now 500 ha planted, including 200 ha of yellow varieties. South African growers produce good quality yellow kiwi. They produce it at a time when they can go into a market in Europe ahead of any other Southern Hemisphere players.
Input Costs – Hail netting for a 10 ha orchard will cost about R250 000/ha. To buy and plant young vines and maintaining through their first 3 years of growth can cost R250 000 – R300 000/ha.
The trees enter production in their fourth year. It will cost approximately R60 000/ha/year to manage a mature gold kiwifruit orchard from then on wards.
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Precision Farming seeks to use new technologies to increase crop yields and profitability while lowering the levels of traditional inputs. These inputs are needed to grow crops – land, water, fertilizer, herbicides and insecticides. In other words, farmers utilizing precision agriculture are using less to grow more. Precision agriculture is the latest trend in agricultural sectors around the world, because it saves time and reduces cost.
DO YOU NEED TO SWITCH TO PRECISION FARMING???
Yes. It is already profitable and will be inevitable in the future.American farmers already save between $11 000 and $39 000 a year on average. The sooner farmers begin to implement precision farming, the more competitive they will be in the future.
Precision Farming Benefits:
- Simplified Farming Processes.
- More cost – efficient farming.
- More time on hands.
- Higher yields and more profitable.
- Better quality produce.
- Less waste.
- Higher quality of life.
Many farmers are adopting new equipment to make their farming more precise. Tractors can map fields, drives themselves, and check it’s own motion so it doesn’t waste fertilizer, seed or fuel. Farnming technology includes remote sensing with data collection on variables like nutrient levels and soil moisture.
Precision farming is about managing variations in the field accurately to grow more food using fewer resources and reducing production costs. The main goal of “precision farming” is to improve agricultural yield and reduce potential environmental risks.
Future of Precision Farming
Some of the most recently technologies available and under development are the state – of – the – art robots. They are capable of managing crops more and more accurately with the possibility of collecting important data.
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“Regenerative Farming” is the latest buzz in responsible agricultural management. It is similar to conservation farming. It combines the use of stubble retention, crop rotation and the minimum disturbance of the soil to promote soil health.
Although having the same aims, regenerative farming moves beyond the simple definition of “organic” and “biological” production. It aims to adapt farming practices to what is happening in and around the plant. It also essentially mimic rather than work against nature.
The key to regenerative agriculture is that it not only “does no harm” to the land but actually improves it. It is done by using technologies that regenerate and revitalize the soil and the environment. Regenerative agriculture leads to healthy soil, capable of producing high quality, nutrient dense food. It simultaneously improve, rather than degrade the land, and ultimately leading to productive farms and healthy communities and economies.
A breakdown of what’s typically involved with regenerating farming include but not limited to:
- Crop rotation, or successively farming more than one plant on the same land.
- Cover cropping, or planting year-round so the land isn’t fallow during off-seasons, which helps prevent soil erosion.
- Conservative tillage, or less plowing of fields.
- Cattle grazing, which naturally stimulates plant growth.
- Curtailing the use of fertilizers and pesticides.
- Animal welfare and fair working practices for farmers.
Regenerative farming practices, such as cover cropping and livestock grazing, aim always to keep a living root in the soil. These practices cycle nutrients without aggressively disturbing the soil to keep carbon stored underground where it belongs. Meanwhile, , composting boosts populations of beneficial soil microbes that feed plants and help them manage pests. This reduces the need for fertilizers, which, when used excessively, can release nitrogen into the air. It also decreases dependence on herbicides and pesticides, which kill healthy bacteria and fungi in the soil.
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Free Range Chicken Farming is a method of chicken farming where the chickens are allowed to roam freely outdoors. This is done for a good part of the day rather than being confined in an enclosure for 24 hours.
In most free range chicken farms, the outdoor ranging area is fenced and therefore making the area an enclosure. Chicken meat is generally consumed in all parts of the world and is very healthy. There are many free range farms that raise chickens and making huge profits from their farming operation.
When you running your own free range chicken farming operation, it is better to produce your own chicken feed. One of the most economical ways of feeding is to grow your own meal-worms as feeding for them. Meal – worms is the most ideal meal to feed free range chickens. It is also less stressful and inexpensive when you do it yourself.
Free range chicken farmers work with various breeds like:
Meat Production – Cobb, Ross, Arbor Acres, Hubbard.
Egg Production – Lohmann, Browns, Lohman Silver, Hy-Line Silver, Hy-Line Brown, Amber – Link and Lohmann Hybrids.
Other poultry hybrids include the following chicken breeds:
- Potch Koekoek.
- Black Australorps.
With the market for “free range eggs” continuing to grow, more new players are getting into the sector.They raise chickens in a semi – intensive , free range or fully organic system. Many of the new entrants are tempted by the relatively low start up costs. Also, the potentially good margins as free range and organic products tend to fetch a higher price.
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Spinach is not only full of flavour, but full of goodness too. Spinach is high in iron, Vitamin A, Vitamin c and low in categories. What most of us eat as spinach is usually “Swiss Chard” because it is:
- Much more available.
- Easier to grow.
- Heat tolerant and
- More productive.
Spinach and Swiss Chard are among the easiest vegetables to grow. They germinate easily, don’t take up much space and are easy to harvest. However, they are gross feeders and need regular feeding to be a great success.
Spinach seeds germinate at 2°C to 30°C. However, 7°C to 24°C is optimum. Seeds will not germinate well in warm weather. Although spinach will grow in temperatures ranging from 5° to 24°C, growth is more rapid at 15° to 18°C.
The plant requires a constant and uniform supply of water in order to obtain a good crop of high quality. During spinach production, the soil should never be allowed to dry out. Spinach requires plenty of water, although the soil should have good drainage.
Spinach grows well on a variety of soils, although fertile, sandy loams with a high organic matter content is preferred. Spinach is particularly sensitive to saturated soil conditions and to acidity. The optimum soil pH is 6.2 to 6.9.
Before planting, prepare and enrich the soil with generous amounts of organics as well as bone meal for root development.
- Spinach and Swiss Chard can be sown in situ. Swiss Chard can also be sown in seed trays as it transplants better than spinach.
- Keep the soil moist during germination – which takes about 5 days.
- Seedlings should be spaced, or thinned out, to about 20cm apart.
- Feed with a liquid fertilizer about 2 weeks after germination and at least once a month after that..
Plants should be spaced 10 – 20 cm apart in rows that are 30cm apart. This equates to about 160 000+ plants per hectare. Commercial growers that harvest mechanically plant closer together at 15cm by 25cm giving the grower 250 000+ plants per hectare.
Harvesting of the first outer leaves can begin at 60 to 70 days from planting. To ensure longer production periods and higher yields spinach needs Nitrogen in the soil throughout its growing period.
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It is evident that batteries comprised of various hazardous ingredients. This could be incredibly damaging to the environment when dumped. If we do not recycle them, the hazardous materials are sure to wind up in rivers, soil, and air. However, most batteries are 100% recoverable for better disposal.
Batteries are expensive and have a relatively short life span. As discarded batteries grow by the tonnage, entrepreneurs are enticed to start a business in recycling. The primary objective of building a good battery is long life, safety and low price.. Recycling is an afterthought and manufacturers do little to simplify the retrieving of precious metals. The recycling business is small compared to the vast battery industry, and only lead acid can be recycled profitably.
Lead – acid batteries are an environmental success story with more than 90% of all scrap batteries successfully recycled in South Africa. This is compared with 70% of beverage cans, 65% of news papers, 30% of plastic, and 26% of glass.
Every day thousand of batteries are produced to service everything from industrial machines, automobiles and even golf carts. Anything that needs mobile electricity needs a powerful battery. The problem is that defunct batteries pose an environmental conundrum. If not dealt with correctly the hazardous materials end up being cast away and negatively impact the environment.
Common materials for recycling includes bottles, paper, towels, aluminum cans etc. Niches available in the recycling industry are:
- Metals recycling.
- Plastic recycling.
- Electronic recycling.
- Water recycling.
- Oil recycling.
- Glass recycling.
- Furniture recycling.
- Garbage recycling.
- Tyre recycling.
- Construction waste recycling.
- Paper recycling.
- Battery Recycling.
- Cartridge recycling and
- Industrial waste recycling.
According to experts, all sorts of used scrap metal maybe profitable. The waste and recycling sector is a broad one though, and there are lots of areas that remain unexploited.
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Matches (Matchsticks) are a very handy tool used in starting a fire. They are used in the kitchen to light ovens, kerosene stoves and cookers. Other application involves starting a fireplace, industrial burners, camp fires or to light candles. Matchsticks are made from plastic material, wood or cardboard strips.
Matches are sold in quantity. There’s the wooden type, which are packaged in boxes. There are also paper matches, which are clustered in rows stapled into matchbooks.
Because matches are used in almost every home and every industrial establishment, the demand for matches is always high. This means there is huge profit potential in the matchstick production business.
Billions of matchboxes are used all over the world in a day for different purposes. These include: to light cooking gas, fireplace, incense sticks or cigarettes etc. This creates a huge demand for a matchstick manufacturing business. The production of wooden matchsticks is a great option to select. Any individual can initiate a matchstick manufacturing business on a small scale with maintaining strictly safety measures. Matchsticks are a consumer durable product and the demand is growing day-by-day.
The manufacturing process consists of several stages:
- Preparing of wood – Wood is cut , into small matches, soaked in fire retardant ammonium phosphate and left to dry. Striking end of the stick is then soaked in hot paraffin wax. This will provide small amount of fuel to the wood, enabling it to burn more easily.
- After matches are transferred to the conveyor belt that is filled with holes in which sticks are inserted. Then they are carried to the tanks that contain two mix of chemicals. One to serve as a base, and one as a finalized layer of match head. Conveyors then move matches away from the tanks, allowing them to get dry.
- Packaging and storing.
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Wheat is an annual grass with basic, erect, hollow or pithy culms. The wheat plant can grow up to 1,2m tall. The wheat leaves are flat and narrow while they can extend up to 38cm long. The spikes are long, slender, dorsally compressed and somewhat flattened.
Warm temperatures are suitable for summer wheat (22° to 34°C) and cool temperatures are suitable for winter wheat (5° to 25°C). An ideal climate for planting wheat can be described as cool and moist, followed by a warm dry season for harvesting.
Well – drained fertile loamy to sandy loam with pH of 6.0 to 7.5. Soil temperatures of less than 5°C are not suitable for seed germination. Wheat is adversely affected by acidic soil.
Soil tillage is one of the important production practices over which the farmer has full control. The effect of tillage cannot be predicted for any season. Therefore, the farmer has to plan his actions to solve specific problems. Unnecessary cultivation’s cost money, time and effort, while valuable soil water is lost in the process. Such cultivation also cause re compaction that has to be addressed later. Minimum tillage (75 to 130mm deep) deep tillage (150 to 300 mm) or no till can be practiced. This will also depend on the soil type, moisture availability, type of cultivar and the previous crop planted.
Wheat is planted mainly between Mid – April and Mid June in the in the winter rainfall areas (Western & Southern Cape). Also between Mid – May and the end of July in the summer rainfall areas (Eastern Free State). The seed should be planted evenly and shallowly in a moist, firm seedbed. Germination, emergence and development of adventitious roots occur within 4 to 6 weeks after planting under proper soil conditions. The required spacing in the row is about 30cm and 50 to 100cm between the rows, depending on the available soil moisture or the farming method.
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When starting your cosmetic / beauty products business, you need to have a “niche” and that niche cannot be organic or natural. There are many untapped niches in the beauty industry for instance:
- Skincare for the elderly.
- Skincare for certain types of athletes (swimmers, runners etc).
- Skincare for teenage boys/girls.
You need to find the niche that works for you and then target that niche with your unique brand.
The cosmetics / beauty industry is in a state of flux. Traditional brands ( Revlon, L’Oreal, Lancóme, etc) are viewed as old. The consumer is looking for more holistic and healing benefits from their skin care products. They are no longer content with just the appearance benefits offered by traditional brands. Today’s consumer is more informed and more inquisitive about the benefits of their personal care products. Their skin products needs to protect them from the sun damaging rays. Also moisturize their skin and reduce the effects of aging.
You need to decide whether you will be producing your beauty/cosmetic products yourself in your own lab or home lab, using a contract manufacturer or opting for private label products.
The cosmetics industry is one of the growing industries in the country with a number of industries. Unisex beauty cosmetics with many branches, and other small businesses have joined the industry. Despite the increase in cosmetic industries, customer demands are not fully met due to the increasingly growing population. Poor delivery of cosmetics to customers also add to the problem.
Cosmetic and beauty products include but not limited to: perfumes, make up items, hair care products, face creams, lotions, deodorants nail polishes etc. The cosmetic industry is one of those businesses which are not affected by economic downfalls or unpredictable incomes as every woman and some men use some type of cosmetic product to maintain a healthy and fresh look.
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Tourism refers to all activities related to the short -term movement of people to locations away from where they reside. Tourism is one of the largest industries and the economies of many nations are driven, to a large extent, by their tourist trade.
Tourism remains a key driver of South Africa’s national economy and contributes to job creation. The Tourism industry is a major contributor to the South African economy and employment of citizens. The Tourism sector contributes about 9% to the country’s gross domestic product (GDP).
The Tourism sector can also contribute positively to youth employment targets and, importantly, also to transformation. This is because it has shown to absorb higher numbers of women than other sectors. Research by WTTC (World Travel & Tourism Council) reveals that female share of employment in this industry in South Africa is 53,7%. This is higher than the proportion of total female employment in the economy (43,7%). A trend echoed in 10 other G20 countries.
Tourism Industry Sectors:
Transportation – Airline, Car Rental, Water Transport, Coach Services (travel) Railway.
Accommodation – Hotels, Shared Accommodation, Hostels, Camping, Bed & Breakfast, Cruises, Time Share.
Food & Beverage – Restaurants, Catering, Bars & Cafés, Nightclubs.
Entertainment – Casino, Tourist Information, Tourist Guides & Tours.
Connected Industries – Financial Services, Travel Agents, Tour Operators, Online Travel Agencies, Tourism Organizations, Educational.
Tourism Equity Fund
The Travel & Tourist department announced the creation of an equity fund. The equity fund aims to support all small – scale stakeholders in the tourism industry. The travel *& tourism sector continues to reel as a result of the global Covid – 19 pandemic.
The Tourism Equity Fund (TEF) will provide financial assistance to majority black – owned enterprises. The R1,2 billion fund, financed by Government and SA major banks, is now accessible to disadvantaged travel & tourism operators.
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Watermelons are a member of the Cucurbitacceae family which includes squash, pumpkins, cucumbers, muskmelons, and gourds. Individual plants produce both male and female flowers and fruit sizes varies from 2 to 14kg, depending on variety. However, seedless varieties will require pollinators. Watermelon leaves are dark green, with prominent veins. They have three large lobes, each further divided into small lobes. Watermelon leaves are heart shaped with three to seven lobes per leaf and are produced on trailing vines.
Selecting the best watermelon variety is the most important decision made by any producer. Planting a variety watermelons that is not suited for the available market and the particular production situation leads to lower profits or possibly crop failure. In addition to market acceptability, a variety must have an acceptable yield, be adapted to the production area and have the highest level of needed pest resistance available.
The major watermelon varieties and types produced are Charleston, Gray Strains, Crimson Sweet, Jubilee, All sweet, Royal Sweet, Sangria, Triploid Seedless, and Black Diamond types.
Watermelons are sensitive to cold temperatures and even a mild frost can severely damage the crop. The best average temperature range for watermelon production during the growing season is between 18°C and 35°C. Temperatures above 35°C or below 10°C will slow the growth and maturation of the crop.
Watermelons row best on non-saline sandy loam or silt loam soils. Light – textured fields warm up faster in the spring and are therefore favored for early production. Very sandy soils have limited water – holding capacities and must be carefully irrigated and fertilized to allow for high yield potential. The soil should have a pH of ,8 to 6,6.
In the winter rainfall area watermelons are planted in September and October, in the Limpopo and Mpumalanga Lowveld from June to August, and in the rest of the country from August to October. The crop matures 3 months after planting, and the yield varies from five to 72 t/h.a.
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Lavender is a perennial bushy shrub growing 0,3 to 1,2m high. True lavender has a compact and rounded growth form. The aromatic evergreen leaves are completely opposite and up to 5cm long. Flowering occurs in the summer and flowers form interrupted spikes and have a very sweet fragrance.
LAVENDER – TEMPERATURE
The Lavender product can tolerate moderate frost and drought. Spike lavender cannot tolerate frost. All lavenders are sensitive to high humidity. High summer temperatures adversely affect oil quality.
Because there are such variable types of lavender, some grow well in different climatic zones from cold to subtropical. Different varieties should be tested to see which will grow best in each micro-climate.
LAVENDER – SOIL
Lavender requires well-drained light, sandy, or sandy loam, or gravelly soils nin full sun. Low- fertility soils are still suitable. Soil pH should be between 5,8 and 8,3. Too moist soils will cause poor plant growth, diseases or kill the plant.English lavenders prefer alkaline soils, whereas the lavandin varieties require slightly more acidic soils.
LAVENDER – PLANTING
The Lavender product is normally planted in row widths of 1,2 to 2,0m apart, with 30 to 60cm between plants. This gives a plant density of 8000 to 28000 plant per hectare. Spacing is done according to available moisture and species, and cultivar size as well as mechanical cultivation and harvesting.
Higher densities mean higher establishment costs but also higher early yields. Plants also tend to support each other, so are more stable and last longer. A good vigorous plantation should be ready for harvest in the second year. Lavender plants can last for 10 to 15 years or longer if managed correctly. Seedlings should be hardened off before being put into the land.
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Basil is an erect herbaceous annual plant, or sometimes grown as a short- lived perennial in some areas. It grows into a bushy shape up to about 50cm tall and some varieties may even grow taller. The stems are herbaceous in young tissue. However, these become woody as the plant matures. Basil Farming has good returns and easy to grow.
BASIL FARMING – PROPAGATION
Propagation is from seed but cuttings can also be planted. Commercial growers will plant basil seed by direct sowing or what is more common is to make seedlings in a protected environment or greenhouse and plant these out after three or four weeks.
BASIL FARMING – PLANTING
Planting of basil seedlings is done by hand and mechanically. Direct sow 10cm in the row to ensure a full stand of basil. Thin out later to the desire plant density. Plants should be spaced30cm apart in rows that are 50cm apart. This is between 65 000 and 67 000 basil plants per hectare. Some commercial farmers increase plant density between 80 000 to 100 000 plants per hectare.
BASIL FARMING – IRRIGATION
The Basil plant is very sensitive to moisture stress so it is very important to keep soil at the optimum capacity advised for the type of soil. Install moisture readers for constant monitoring. Stress will bring on flower, which is detrimental to production. Basil can be irrigated by sprinkler or drip. Drip is, however, best as it keeps the leaves dry. Wet foliage can cause fungus growth, which damages the leaves. Depending on the weather and temperature basil can grow on about 40mm of irrigation per week.
BASIL FARMING – GROWTH
From the time the basil seeds are planted to when the first harvest can be done is about ten weeks. Thereafter the basil can be harvested twice more. Cut the basil 15cm above the ground allowing enough stem for re – growth.
BASIL FARMING – FERTILIZATION
Do not over fertilize as this will hasten maturity and flowering. Fertilize according to soil analysis done on the soil prior to planting. About 200 to 300kg of 3.1.5 when plants are about 20cm high should be ample until the first harvest.
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Butternut is a tasty, orange squash that is very popular in our South African gardens and kitchens. Also in oven roasts, rocket salads, as a mash, or even as a creamy soup.
Farmers growing butternuts from seedlings can get around 20t – 30t per hectare with appropriate spacing and irrigation. Harvesting takes place a month after the fruits have set and once the fruits show hardening of the outer skins. The butternut fruits are harvested before they are fully ripe in order to ensure maximum yield.
Butternuts can be stored for up to 90 days in rooms away from direct sunlight and with good ventilation between the fruits. To ensure a long storage life, it is important to cure the fruits. This can be done on the field for a period of about 12 days in warm weather without rain. Or in rooms using artificial heating to ensure temperatures of around 26°C and humidity of 78 to 82%.
The crop can be propagated in many types of soil but performs best in organically rich soil with a pH of between 5.5 and 6.6. It is essential to transplant the seedling to well- drained soil. Clay soil can be a suitable medium but water logging can lead to lower crop yield and dirty fruits. The plant is sensitive to frost and it is best to avoid planting it on fields at risk of experiencing frost.
It is possible to grow up to 30 000 plants per hectare. Spacing of 30 to 40cm should be maintained between the butternut seedlings and 1,2m between rows.
The plant has a deep root system, making it necessary to water deep and well. A certain level of drought stress can be handled, but it is best to keep the soil moist. Sufficient irrigation is needed during the growth period to ensure sufficient water around the root Zone for optimal nutrient uptake and good fruit setting.
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Radishes are a hardy, very easy-to-grow root vegetable that can be planted multiply times in a growing season. Plus, radishes can be harvested as soon as three weeks after planting.
Grow radishes in full sun or partial shade. Plant radishes in loose, well-drained soil. Remove soil lumps, rocks, and roots from radish planting beds. Obstructions can cause roots to grow malformed. Add organic matter to planting beds before sowing radishes. Radishes prefer a soil pH of 5.5 to 6.8.
Radishes can be grown for spring or winter crops. Spring varieties are the common small red varieties. Winter radishes are larger, oblong, and can grow 8 to 9 inches long.
- Cherry Belle – 22 days.
- Burpee White – 25 days.
- Black Spanish – 55 days.
- White Chinese – 60 days.
Spring radishes require 20 to 30 days to reach harvest. Winter radishes require 50 to 60 days to reach harvest. Radishes are ready for harvest when roots reach 1 inch across. Lift the whole plant when radishes are the right size. Lift a few or push the soil aside gently to decide if they are large enough to harvest. Do not leave radishes in the ground too long or they will become pithy.
Water & Feeding
Keep radish planting beds moist but not wet. Even, regular watering will result in quick growth. Radishes that receive too little water will become woody tasting. Prepare planting beds with aged compost. Side dress radishes with aged compost at mid season.
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Groundnut production/ farming can hold many benefits for smallholder farmers, especially when included on a crop rotation program. These benefits include enhancing the nitrogen content of the soil. Groundnuts do best in warm regions, where the minimum air temperature does not fall below 15 degrees C during the growing season.
Soil & Climate
Best results are obtained from deep, well- drained soils in good condition. Suitable soils include sands and sandy loams. Groundnuts will not grow well on acid soils and thus liming may be necessary for good production (the ideal pH is 5,3 to 6,8). Groundnuts must not be grown on the same land more than once in every four years. Groundnuts are a good crop to grow before maize.
Groundnuts are sensitive to cool overcast conditions both in the early part of the season and during pod filling. The ideal season is one which has much sunshine, coupled with sufficient rainfall, especially during pegging and pod filling.
Basic fertilization – Groundnuts should be grown in rotation with cereals (e.g. maize and sorghum), which have been fertilized, because groundnuts respond well when a fertilizer is applied to the previous crop rather than to the groundnuts themselves. Thus, in the most cases, no basal compound fertilizer is applied. Groundnuts respond well to manure, because the manure not only supplies nutrients, but also helps to ameliorate soil acidity.
Top dressing – Groundnuts have a high requirement for calcium, especially during the pegging stage. Low availability of calcium at this stage will result in a large proportion of empty shells.
The harvesting process includes loosening, lifting, wilting, cocking (curing), picking and finally shelling. It is important that once the plants are lifted they be allowed to wilt for a few days with the pods exposed to the air before cocking. When cocking the groundnuts keep the plants off the ground. Ensure the cock is constructed to allow free flow of air through the cock, to facilitate rapid drying. Curing and drying may take from 2 to 4 weeks. Begin picking when the kernels rattle in the pods.. It is possible to pick one to two bags per person per day.
Groundnuts must be dry before placing in a storehouse. The storehouse must be dry, cool and well ventilated. It is best to store groundnuts in their shells.
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Ginger is used to produce ginger wine, ginger beer, cordials, pickles and pharmaceutical preparations. A daily intake of 5g of ginger is reported to protect against coronary artery disease (CAD) and normally afflicts individuals who habitually consume fatty foods. Ginger is also used for soft drinks and different medicine preparations.
The ginger rhizome is broken into smaller pieces and these are used as plant material. The pieces should be about 50 to 75 grams in size and are planted into the plant area at a depth of 15cm.
Ginger plants should be spaced 25cm apart in rows that are 30cm apart. This equates to approximately 100 000 to 120 000 plants per hectare. Paths for the tractors and other implements are left every few rows and this depends on the width of the tractors or implements that are used.
Ginger takes 8 – 10 months to produce a god – sized rhizome or tuber for the harvesting of mid – season ginger in April and May for the fresh market. Late ginger is harvested almost a year after planting in June and July. Late ginger is sold fresh but is also dried and ground or used to extract the oils.
It is a good practice to apply mulching along the plant rows. This keeps the soil from losing moisture and controls the growth of weeds. Ginger does well in high rainfall regions – so irrigation is important over the entire growing period. An irrigation schedule of between 45 and 50 millimeters per week is advised.
Fertilize the plant each six to eight weeks, using organic fertilizer like seaweed extract or fish emulsion. he necessary nutrition it needs to grow ginger are:
Nitrogen – Essential for chlorophyll, proteins, and amino acids.
Phosphorus – It performs a vital part of respiration. Phosphorus is also critical to the evolution of enzymes, phospholipads, and nucleic acids.
Potassium – Necessary for yeast activation, osmosis, transpiration, also the opening and closing of the stomates of the leaves.
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Okra is an economically important vegetable crop of many countries in Africa including Ghana, Ethiopia, Nigeria, Egypt and many others. It has the nickname “lady’s finger” and is sometimes called “gumbo” in most other places. Farmers growing Okra for profit do so to meet both domestic and foreign market demands.
Okra is easy to grow and use and looks lovely throughout the growing season due to its beautiful flowers. It is also rich in Vitamin A and low in calories, which makes it a great addition to any diet.
Okra likes fertile, well – composted soil and needs moisture and warmth to thrive. Although okra typically has no problems with diseases or pests it is very sensitive to frost. Heat – loving okra is capable of withstanding dry periods once established. Okra can grow around 75cm wide and 120 – 180 cm tall.
The key to maintaining okra production continuously throughout summer is to harvest regularly. Only 3 to 4 days are required from the time the okra flower opens until the pod reaches harvest maturity. For this reason, okra must be harvested at least every day during the growing season.
Since Okra is very susceptible to damage by nematodes, one should follow a crop rotation, using such crops as grasses and small grains, which prevent a building of nematode populations. Okra should not follow vine crops, such as squash and sweet potatoes because these crops tend to increase nematode population.
Okra grows best on soils that have a pH of 5.8 to 6.5. A “soil test” will indicate if lime is required and will also specify the amount of fertilizer to apply. If lime is recommended, use “dolomitic” lime. Apply it 3 or 4 months before the crop is seeded. If a soil test is not available, general recommendations are to apply. Use 600 to 800 pounds per acre of a complete fertilizer such as 6-12 or 5 -10 -15. This can be mixed under the row or applied in a band to the side.
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Dragon fruit is a tropical fruit of the climbing cacti (Cacta cease) family. It is also known as pitaya or strawberry pear and is a native species of Mexico, Central and South America. Dragon Fruit is mainly eaten fresh and is best served chilled. The thick skins are easily peeled to reveal white or pink to red flesh, dotted with tiny black seeds
There are three most commonly farmed varieties of dragon fruit:
1. pink – red skin with red flesh.
2. rare yellow skinned dragon fruit with white flesh and
3. pink – red dragon fruit with white flesh.
Dragon fruit is best propagated from cuttings. The plants prefer well – drained and composted soil in warm areas with a rainfall of at least 400 mm and up to 1500 mm per year. High – density planting of up to 1250 plants/ha is easily managed, with a spacing of 4m x 5m x 2.5m, depending on trellising systems. The thick fleshy stems can grow up to 4m, in a single growing season and must be trained and tied onto a single pole or trellis system of about 1.8m high. Precast concrete poles are widely used and three to four plants can be trained onto one pole.
As the fruit develops, it starts changing colour at 26 – 30 days after pollination. It should be ready to harvest in about 30 – 34 days, a few days after the fruit has changed colour. After harvesting by hand, dragon fruit is washed in a food – grade disinfectant and size – graded by weight. The fruit is then sorted according to superficial damage, e.g. ants or fruit flies, shrivel, skin colour as well as the colour and condition of the bracts (scales). The plants bear fruit two years after planting and is in full production within 5 years. Depending on the cultivar and condition of the plantings, yields of 15 – 35 tons/ha can be expected.
Dragon Fruit Uses
Dragon Fruit is primarily grown for the fresh eating market and it often sold at farmers markets in South Africa. The fruit can also be processed into many value – added products such as dried fruit rolls, fruit bars, ice cream, jams, juices, pastries as fruit pulp and in yogurt.
* Helping to boost immunity.
* High levels of Vitamin C.
* Speed up metabolism and the digestive process.
* Regulate blood sugar.
* Helpful in diets for diabetics.
* Contains vitamins B1, B2 and B3.
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Kale – also called Bore Cole, is a cool season crop that belongs to the Brassicas family. Its leaves , which are rich in vitamins and essential mineral elements are widely utilized alone or mixed with other vegetables, pulses or meat. It is an all-year crop and has the potential to reduce poverty levels.
* High in iron which is essential for good health.
* Rich in Vitamin K which helps in protecting the body against various cancers.
* High in fiber, low in calorie and zero fat.
* Has anti-inflammatory properties which helps in fighting against asthma, arthritis etc.
* Rich in Vitamin and C.
* Good source of calcium which helps in preventing osteoporosis and bone loss.
Kale is typically grown like other greens, making it easy for existing growers to incorporate it into their farming systems. Kale has a similar flavor to traditional greens, and there are multiple ways to prepare it. Its growing popularity is linked to its perceived health benefits.
Basically, there are 3 main varieties, dwarf (below 40cm), medium (40 – 80cm) and tall (above 80cm). Tall variety sheds the leaves early and has less production. Main dwarf type varieties are dwarf green curled scotch, dwarf moss curled, moss curled and hamburger market (medium to tall).
The Kale crop prefers well – drained sandy loam soil with good organic matter. It can be grown on a wide range of soils having good drainage conditions. This hardy crop tolerates salts in the soil. the ideal soil pH of 5.5 to 6.5 (slightly acidic) will result in a good yield.
In Kale leaves cultivation, harvesting starts from November and continues up to January. For better quality, it should be harvested at the right vegetative stage. Harvested leaves should be bundled, packed and marketed.
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QUAIL is a general name that is given to a generation of mid-sized birds generally placed in the order Galliformes. There are loads of poultry’s that raise quail for meat and eggs and they are making huge profits from this type of farming operation.
There are loads of opportunities in the poultry farming industry and quail egg production is one of them. In recent time, quail egg production is known by all and it has evolved from small scale to a global industry in most countries where it is carried out.
Quail is a bird about the size of a plump pigeon. Quails reach adulthood in six weeks and start laying eggs almost immediately after this. That means you can start selling a portion of the eggs and get a quick return on your initial investment. Quails lay around 350 eggs a year and females don’t need males to lay eggs.
Once you’ve started selling your quail eggs, you can also consider selling quail meat. The meat is delicious and also healthy. Quail meat and eggs are quickly gaining popularity because the products provide important minerals and vitamins. The meat and eggs are low in fat and high in protein which makes it very popular. It can help with the treatment of diseases like diabetes, tuberculosis, liver disease, hypertension and a host of other ailments.
Quails don’t eat much and will thrive on a special mixture of corn, wheat calcium carbonate and sunflower seeds. They even eat chicken feed, other grains, leaves and insects. Some quail farmers feed the quails weeds from their garden and therefore doesn’t require high maintenance. Your main concern would be to keep the birds well fed and watered.
For successful breeding purpose, you have to keep male and female quails on a proper ratio.The most effective ratio for successful breeding is 5:1.That means, one male with every 5 female quails. Quails don’t hatch their eggs so you can also plan to purchase an incubator for hatching their eggs.
Quails are highly disease resistant unlike chickens. Diseases and other health issues are less in quails. By proper care and management, you can keep your birds healthy and productive and free from all types of illnesses or health issues.
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If you are interested in the drone technology industry and you are looking to launch a business as an aspiring entrepreneur, one of your best bet is to launch a “drone rental” business. The right time to star a drone rental business is now because this business concept is presently at it’s growing stage.
Setting up a drone rental business could be fun, profitable and interesting for someone who is smart and with a positive outlook. With the right location , reliable drones and good marketing skills, you can attract loads of clients. Whether drones are controlled by a remote or accessed via a smart phone app, they posses the capability of reaching the most remote areas with little to no manpower needed and require the least amount of effort, time, and energy. This is one of the biggest reasons why they being adopted world wide, especially by sectors like: Commercial, Agriculture, Personal and Future Technology.
Surviving in the business world as a drone rental operator requires more than having reliable and easy to use drones, your expertise, creativity, and knowing how to deliver etc but also how to network with key people that matters; entrepreneurs/farmers that can rent your drones.
There would always be clients who need to cut cost of running their business , hence the need to rent drones. Income can be generated by offering:
* Renting out reliable and easy to operate drones.
* Sales of used and brand new drones.
* Repair and servicing drones.
A drone rental business requires significant capital, solid planning, and attention to detail in order to keep your business profitable. The drone rental line of business is very open to any aspiring entrepreneur who has the capacity to open and run the business as long as they have all the required permits and licenses.
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Agro – tourism receives massive support from Government because it gives farmers and other stakeholders in the industry a opportunity to generate additional income and an avenue for direct marketing of their produce to consumers.
Agro – tourism is a booming line of business in any country. Agro tourists can choose from a wide range of activities that include picking fruits and vegetables, riding horses, tasting honey, learning about wine and cheese making, or shopping in farm gift shops and farm stands for produce or hand crafted- gifts.
Some of the factors that encourage entrepreneurs to start their own agro tourism business could be that the business is easy to set up and the start up capital is indeed affordable.. You can actually start your own agro- tourism business from a small farm. However, you need to ensue that you have things in place or activities that will compel people (tourists) to travel from far to tour your farm.
Agro – tourism is defined as a form of commercial enterprise that links agriculture production or processing with tourism in order to attract visitors, with a number of financial, educational and social benefits for tourists, producers and communities. Travelers are stepping off the beaten track and treading new paths, embracing local culture, food, flora and fauna. Agro – tourism caters to this rising demand for valuable experiences, by offering insight into (often unseen) industries. In doing so, it can also become a key contributor to the local tourism economy, attracting a higher volume of visitors and increasing the length of their stay.
Agro – tourism can offer guests new insights and experiences that in most instances, strengthens their connection with the environment. Whether it’s cut-flower gardens offering bouquet workshops, dairy farms inviting guests to milk cows, or those providing temporary accommodation facilities, it’s a great way to fuse travel experiences for guests with agricultural benefits for businesses.
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The software development industry has grown in the space of a century from an almost non – existent industry to one that is not only a billion dollar industry but an indispensable one , especially as software form the basis of modern gadgets & devices.
The software development industry has room for growth as there is considerable demand in the industry with more businesses adopting software programs that will allow for improved efficiency and lower operating costs; this was so as to look for ways to not be affected by the economic downturn.
Software itself is the set of instructions or programs that tell a computer what to do. There are the following types:
System software – provide core functions such as operating systems, utilities, disk management, hardware management and other operational necessities.
Programming software – give programmers tools such as text editors, computers, linker, debuggers, and other tools to create code.
Application software – (applications or apps) – to help users perform tasks. Office productivity suites, data management software, media players and security programs are examples.
Embedded software – Embedded systems software is used to control machines and devices not typically considered computers – telecommunication networks, cars, industrial robots and more are examples.
A software development company is where software is not only developed but distributed for different purposes such as instructional, calculation, entertainment, and assessment purposes. Before one can start a software development company, there are basic things that one needs such as knowledge of programming, technical support skills, the necessary experience of managing a company and some funds.
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Sugarcane farming is known to be a profitable business and over the years, it evolved from uncoordinated to a global industry in most countries where it’s carried out. With the recent advancement in technology, farmers can now comfortably grow crops such as sugarcane in a country where such crops can hardly survive and in places where there are few farming lands.
Sugarcane grows on almost all classes of soil, but it needs fertile, well – drained soil. Humid soils from 100 to 150cm deep with good drainage are most suitable. It grows well in deep well-drained soils of medium fertility of sandy loam soil textures with a pH range from 6.0 to 7.7. The optimum soil pH is about 6.5 but sugarcane can tolerate a considerable degree of soil acidity and alkalinity.
There are 2 methods of planting, namely manual and mechanical. The cane setts are manually placed end to end (or overlapping) together with fertilizer in the furrow and then covered with soil. With mechanical planting, the three operations of opening the furrow, planting the setts and applying fertilizer are conducted simultaneously.
Closer spacing tends to result in higher yields, provided there is adequate moisture in the soil. Row and plant spacing for manual planting is 1.0 to 1.3m x 0.5m. For normal mechanical operations, the best row spacing is between 1.4 and 1.6m. The setts are planted at a degree angle or laid horizontally in a furrow and thereafter are covered lightly with soil until they sprout then the sides of the furrow are turned inwards. Optimum cover is 50mm of soil.
Depth of Planting
Furrows for planting should be approximately 100mm deep. Sets should be cut into five bud lengths.
Sugarcane is used for sugar production, a raw material in human food industries, as a fertilizer and as livestock fodder. The primary use for sugarcane is to process sugar, which is then used in producing an infinite number of products. The type of sugar produced by sugarcane is called sucrose. Sucrose is used as a sweetening agent for foods and in the manufacturing of cakes, candles, preservation’s, soft drinks, alcohol and numerous other foods.
IF YOU WANT TO START SUCCESSFULLY IN THIS TYPE OF FARMING OR ANY OTHER FARMING OPERATION YOU WILL NEED A BANKABLE AND WELL – STRUCTURED PROFESSIONAL BUSINESS PLAN.
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Furniture is a major part of our lives and there is hardly any facility that you will come across that you won’t find a piece of furniture in it. This goes to show that the furniture manufacturing industry is indeed an important sector of the economy of any country.
Businesses in this industry mainly manufacture or make household (living room, dining room and bedroom) furniture, coffee tables, sofa tables, sofas, chairs, bookshelves, ottomans, display cabinets, consoles and TV stands. Outdoor and office furniture like desks, home office goods, lamps, recliners etc are also manufactured.
Tips to set up your furniture manufacturing business
1. Find your niche
Decide what kind of furniture you will create, such as home furnishings, office furniture or cabinetry. Specify the materials you intend to use, such as wood, metal and upholstery. Decide on your target market i.e. if you going to sell to the residential, resort or commercial customers.
2. Store or on – line type of business?
You may choose to rent a store front with a workshop and sell your furniture to walk-in customers. Alternatively, you might choose to develop a website and take only online orders.
If you plan to open a store, find space that suits your customer needs. If you making customer cabinets, find space that’s large enough to display different options. Or, if your target market is residential choose a space that’s easy to find and that will be able to accommodate parents with children.
4. Business Structure
Make sure that you choose the right business structure such as company, partnership or a sole proprietor.
5. Obtain Licenses
Find out exactly what type of license/permit is necessary to operate your business in a specific municipal area.
6. Write a Business Plan
If you want your furniture – making business to be successful, you must invest time defining your marketing strategies, developing financial projections and organizing and managing your business.
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A vineyard is a plantation of grape- bearing vines, grown mainly for wine making, but also for raisins, table grapes and non – alcoholic grape juice. The science, practice and study of vineyard production is known as viticulture. A winery is a licensed property that makes wine.
So, a vineyard can have a winery that produces wine from the grapes it grows, but it can also sell its grapes to outside wineries and purely act as a grape-grower. Vineyards are often located on hillsides and planted in soils that are of only marginal value to other plants.
The wine making process includes growing and harvesting grapes, crushing and pressing grapes into unfermented wine and fermenting the wine. The industry also makes wine blends, brandies and wines from other fruit sources.
The wine industry is undergoing an exciting period of change, both in the vineyard and in the winery. Wine makers are experimenting with new varieties of wine, as well as new clones of existing varieties such as chardonnay and Cabernet sauvignon. Large – scale experimentation with root-stocks is taking place to establish which planting material is particularly suited to conditions In most South African vineyards harvesting is carried out by hand, although machines are used on some farms. The grapes are picked into baskets and transported in bins to the winery where vinification begins.
Wine producers are focused on identifyng and selecting sites best suited to particular grape varieties. In addition, new clones and root – stocks which particularly well adapted to the local soil and climatic conditions are being selected.
Wines thrive in poor soils and are capable of putting down roots to a depth of several meters in search of nutrients and water. Good quality grapes, however, are not produced on badly drained or very shallow sites.
After growing the grapes, you can sell or export them to wineries who are involved in producing the wine. You can also decide to start and own a winery where you can produce the wine and distribute them to consumers. Another option is to do both by having an estate winery where you grow the grapes and produce the wine.
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Starting a car wash business is one of the ways to hit good money really fast. This is because of the way people use them. However, care has to be taken so that one sets up something quite unique and different from the conventional car wash centers.
In the car wash industry, you will also find customized services such as full and self- service car wash services, as well as truck and bus washes and vehicle detailing services. The industry is open to both small entrepreneurs (neighborhood car wash) and big time investors.
A car wash business is perfect for someone who wants to start his own business. You do not have to have much capital to start. You can start small and gradually expand as your finances improve. To stand out from the rest of the car washes in your neighborhood, you will need to put in some extras in addition to washing cars. Think of selling snacks that your customers can munch on while they wait.
Just like in any other business, you must know your target market. While it is clear that your target market are vehicle owners, you need to know their lifestyles in order to attract them to your car wash. You must find out how much they spend on taking care of their cars and decide on a reasonable fee. Also check the kind of cars the majority of prospective customers drive.
The marketing and advertising side won’t cost you too much money to create awareness of the existence of your business. The business needs to be visible and you can also personally tell people about your services. Wherever you go nowadays, you are always approached by individuals wanting to wash your car. This is how easy it is to sell your services.
Before you even begin to look for funding, you will at this point need to create a detailed business plan. No institution will give you funding without one. Sourcing funding for a start up can be a bit of a challenge if you do not know where to go or what they are expecting of you.
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