A vineyard is a plantation of grape- bearing vines, grown mainly for wine making, but also for raisins, table grapes and non – alcoholic grape juice. The science, practice and study of vineyard production is known as viticulture. A winery is a licensed property that makes wine.
So, a vineyard can have a winery that produces wine from the grapes it grows, but it can also sell its grapes to outside wineries and purely act as a grape-grower. Vineyards are often located on hillsides and planted in soils that are of only marginal value to other plants.
The wine making process includes growing and harvesting grapes, crushing and pressing grapes into unfermented wine and fermenting the wine. The industry also makes wine blends, brandies and wines from other fruit sources.
The wine industry is undergoing an exciting period of change, both in the vineyard and in the winery. Wine makers are experimenting with new varieties of wine, as well as new clones of existing varieties such as chardonnay and Cabernet sauvignon. Large – scale experimentation with root-stocks is taking place to establish which planting material is particularly suited to conditions In most South African vineyards harvesting is carried out by hand, although machines are used on some farms. The grapes are picked into baskets and transported in bins to the winery where vinification begins.
Wine producers are focused on identifyng and selecting sites best suited to particular grape varieties. In addition, new clones and root – stocks which particularly well adapted to the local soil and climatic conditions are being selected.
Wines thrive in poor soils and are capable of putting down roots to a depth of several meters in search of nutrients and water. Good quality grapes, however, are not produced on badly drained or very shallow sites.
After growing the grapes, you can sell or export them to wineries who are involved in producing the wine. You can also decide to start and own a winery where you can produce the wine and distribute them to consumers. Another option is to do both by having an estate winery where you grow the grapes and produce the wine.
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