Matches (Matchsticks) are a very handy tool used in starting a fire. They are used in the kitchen to light ovens, kerosene stoves and cookers. Other application involves starting a fireplace, industrial burners, camp fires or to light candles. Matchsticks are made from plastic material, wood or cardboard strips.
Matches are sold in quantity. There’s the wooden type, which are packaged in boxes. There are also paper matches, which are clustered in rows stapled into matchbooks.
Because matches are used in almost every home and every industrial establishment, the demand for matches is always high. This means there is huge profit potential in the matchstick production business.
Billions of matchboxes are used all over the world in a day for different purposes. These include: to light cooking gas, fireplace, incense sticks or cigarettes etc. This creates a huge demand for a matchstick manufacturing business. The production of wooden matchsticks is a great option to select. Any individual can initiate a matchstick manufacturing business on a small scale with maintaining strictly safety measures. Matchsticks are a consumer durable product and the demand is growing day-by-day.
The manufacturing process consists of several stages:
- Preparing of wood – Wood is cut , into small matches, soaked in fire retardant ammonium phosphate and left to dry. Striking end of the stick is then soaked in hot paraffin wax. This will provide small amount of fuel to the wood, enabling it to burn more easily.
- After matches are transferred to the conveyor belt that is filled with holes in which sticks are inserted. Then they are carried to the tanks that contain two mix of chemicals. One to serve as a base, and one as a finalized layer of match head. Conveyors then move matches away from the tanks, allowing them to get dry.
- Packaging and storing.
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Wheat is an annual grass with basic, erect, hollow or pithy culms. The wheat plant can grow up to 1,2m tall. The wheat leaves are flat and narrow while they can extend up to 38cm long. The spikes are long, slender, dorsally compressed and somewhat flattened.
Warm temperatures are suitable for summer wheat (22° to 34°C) and cool temperatures are suitable for winter wheat (5° to 25°C). An ideal climate for planting wheat can be described as cool and moist, followed by a warm dry season for harvesting.
Well – drained fertile loamy to sandy loam with pH of 6.0 to 7.5. Soil temperatures of less than 5°C are not suitable for seed germination. Wheat is adversely affected by acidic soil.
Soil tillage is one of the important production practices over which the farmer has full control. The effect of tillage cannot be predicted for any season. Therefore, the farmer has to plan his actions to solve specific problems. Unnecessary cultivation’s cost money, time and effort, while valuable soil water is lost in the process. Such cultivation also cause re compaction that has to be addressed later. Minimum tillage (75 to 130mm deep) deep tillage (150 to 300 mm) or no till can be practiced. This will also depend on the soil type, moisture availability, type of cultivar and the previous crop planted.
Wheat is planted mainly between Mid – April and Mid June in the in the winter rainfall areas (Western & Southern Cape). Also between Mid – May and the end of July in the summer rainfall areas (Eastern Free State). The seed should be planted evenly and shallowly in a moist, firm seedbed. Germination, emergence and development of adventitious roots occur within 4 to 6 weeks after planting under proper soil conditions. The required spacing in the row is about 30cm and 50 to 100cm between the rows, depending on the available soil moisture or the farming method.
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When starting your cosmetic / beauty products business, you need to have a “niche” and that niche cannot be organic or natural. There are many untapped niches in the beauty industry for instance:
- Skincare for the elderly.
- Skincare for certain types of athletes (swimmers, runners etc).
- Skincare for teenage boys/girls.
You need to find the niche that works for you and then target that niche with your unique brand.
The cosmetics / beauty industry is in a state of flux. Traditional brands ( Revlon, L’Oreal, Lancóme, etc) are viewed as old. The consumer is looking for more holistic and healing benefits from their skin care products. They are no longer content with just the appearance benefits offered by traditional brands. Today’s consumer is more informed and more inquisitive about the benefits of their personal care products. Their skin products needs to protect them from the sun damaging rays. Also moisturize their skin and reduce the effects of aging.
You need to decide whether you will be producing your beauty/cosmetic products yourself in your own lab or home lab, using a contract manufacturer or opting for private label products.
The cosmetics industry is one of the growing industries in the country with a number of industries. Unisex beauty cosmetics with many branches, and other small businesses have joined the industry. Despite the increase in cosmetic industries, customer demands are not fully met due to the increasingly growing population. Poor delivery of cosmetics to customers also add to the problem.
Cosmetic and beauty products include but not limited to: perfumes, make up items, hair care products, face creams, lotions, deodorants nail polishes etc. The cosmetic industry is one of those businesses which are not affected by economic downfalls or unpredictable incomes as every woman and some men use some type of cosmetic product to maintain a healthy and fresh look.
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Tourism refers to all activities related to the short -term movement of people to locations away from where they reside. Tourism is one of the largest industries and the economies of many nations are driven, to a large extent, by their tourist trade.
Tourism remains a key driver of South Africa’s national economy and contributes to job creation. The Tourism industry is a major contributor to the South African economy and employment of citizens. The Tourism sector contributes about 9% to the country’s gross domestic product (GDP).
The Tourism sector can also contribute positively to youth employment targets and, importantly, also to transformation. This is because it has shown to absorb higher numbers of women than other sectors. Research by WTTC (World Travel & Tourism Council) reveals that female share of employment in this industry in South Africa is 53,7%. This is higher than the proportion of total female employment in the economy (43,7%). A trend echoed in 10 other G20 countries.
Tourism Industry Sectors:
Transportation – Airline, Car Rental, Water Transport, Coach Services (travel) Railway.
Accommodation – Hotels, Shared Accommodation, Hostels, Camping, Bed & Breakfast, Cruises, Time Share.
Food & Beverage – Restaurants, Catering, Bars & Cafés, Nightclubs.
Entertainment – Casino, Tourist Information, Tourist Guides & Tours.
Connected Industries – Financial Services, Travel Agents, Tour Operators, Online Travel Agencies, Tourism Organizations, Educational.
Tourism Equity Fund
The Travel & Tourist department announced the creation of an equity fund. The equity fund aims to support all small – scale stakeholders in the tourism industry. The travel *& tourism sector continues to reel as a result of the global Covid – 19 pandemic.
The Tourism Equity Fund (TEF) will provide financial assistance to majority black – owned enterprises. The R1,2 billion fund, financed by Government and SA major banks, is now accessible to disadvantaged travel & tourism operators.
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Watermelons are a member of the Cucurbitacceae family which includes squash, pumpkins, cucumbers, muskmelons, and gourds. Individual plants produce both male and female flowers and fruit sizes varies from 2 to 14kg, depending on variety. However, seedless varieties will require pollinators. Watermelon leaves are dark green, with prominent veins. They have three large lobes, each further divided into small lobes. Watermelon leaves are heart shaped with three to seven lobes per leaf and are produced on trailing vines.
Selecting the best watermelon variety is the most important decision made by any producer. Planting a variety watermelons that is not suited for the available market and the particular production situation leads to lower profits or possibly crop failure. In addition to market acceptability, a variety must have an acceptable yield, be adapted to the production area and have the highest level of needed pest resistance available.
The major watermelon varieties and types produced are Charleston, Gray Strains, Crimson Sweet, Jubilee, All sweet, Royal Sweet, Sangria, Triploid Seedless, and Black Diamond types.
Watermelons are sensitive to cold temperatures and even a mild frost can severely damage the crop. The best average temperature range for watermelon production during the growing season is between 18°C and 35°C. Temperatures above 35°C or below 10°C will slow the growth and maturation of the crop.
Watermelons row best on non-saline sandy loam or silt loam soils. Light – textured fields warm up faster in the spring and are therefore favored for early production. Very sandy soils have limited water – holding capacities and must be carefully irrigated and fertilized to allow for high yield potential. The soil should have a pH of ,8 to 6,6.
In the winter rainfall area watermelons are planted in September and October, in the Limpopo and Mpumalanga Lowveld from June to August, and in the rest of the country from August to October. The crop matures 3 months after planting, and the yield varies from five to 72 t/h.a.
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