Pig Farming Plans South Africa

Pig Farming Plan Writing Services for SA.



A Pig Farmer has 2 options:

  1. Intensive farming; or
  2. Free – Range Farming.

Intensive Pigs are kept in a high-density, closed housing system.

Free RangePigs are running in smallish camps, foraging on feed crops such as oats, barley, lucerne and even grass.

Both systems have their advantages and disadvantages, but pig farmers should also consider other factors before taking the plunge.

To breed or not :

Do you plan to breed pigs, or to buy young pigs (weaners) to grow and sell? It better to start with weaners, grow them and sell them a few times before attempting to breed them. You will get to understand pigs better and be better able to develop management protocols. Your management skills should be sound when you start breeding, as this process is far more complicated and difficult than rearing pigs.


Pigs are strong animals but are easily stressed by factors such s insufficient feed and water, and severe weather if not housed properly. This will decrease productivity, leading to losses. Pigs need solidly built infrastructure including housing, water troughs and fencing.


  • What feed will you use?
  • Will it be pigswill or leftovers from restaurants or supermarkets?
  • Pigs grow more slowly on a unbalanced diet, or will you feed pigs a commercial balanced pig ration, which is more expensive?

Before buying your first pigs, make sure you can afford to vaccinate and feed them until they are market ready.

Water Availability

Will you have a reliable supply of clean, cool water available? Water is often called the ” forgotten nutrient”, and an unreliable supply can lead to serious loss in productivity, disease and even mortality. A young, growing pig will require at least 10L of water a day while an adult pig can drink 25L – 50L a day.


Buy good pigs; never purchase pigs just because they’re cheap. Poorly bred pigs may carry a disease, be genetically inferior or take longer to grow to a marketable size. They may also have poor body conformation or a poor meat-to-fat ratio. The market may not be satisfied with such pork, and this will affect your good name as a supplier.

Other Information

Other factors to consider include:

  • providing enough shade in a free range set up ( pigs are susceptible to sunburn).
  • access to straw or sawdust for bedding.
  • a reliable market for your pigs.
  • transport available to take pigs to the market.
  • do you see your pig operation as a long-term hobby, or one you plan to grow into a full-time business?

YOU WILL NEED A PROFESSIONAL FARM BUSINESS PLAN TO START CONTACT 084 583 3143 or email us: money@global.co.za





Tomatoes are one of the major food crops of the Western world, yet breeders are still trying to improve the fruit’s disease resistance, shape flavor and color. The tomato is a member of the Solanaceae family which also includes peppers, capsicums, eggplants, potatoes and tobacco. While many consider the tomato to be a vegetable, it is in fact a berry fruit. There are many varieties and they are used in many different ways. Some are eaten fresh in salads, others used in cooking. Some varieties are firm and have a large amount of fiber (i.e. they have a low solids content). Firm varieties are preferred for salads and sandwiches. Hence selection of the correct variety is important.

When deciding to start growing tomatoes commercially it is very important to find out what your market wants. If you are seeking to establish a new market then you should do some research into the market size. It is also important to produce quality fruit. The tomatoes should have a uniform color, and fruit showing uneven or blotchy areas should be discarded, as well as bruised, split or misshapen fruit.


It is very important to establish the market you are intending to sell to and then produce for that market. While the grower may be proud to produce large prize-winning tomatoes, the normal consumer buys tomatoes that are 65 to 75 mm diameter and weigh 120 to 150 grams. Tomato varieties can be placed in four main categories according to their method of production and market use:

  1. Canning tomatoes.                                                

  2. Greenhouse tomatoes.

  3. Outdoor tomatoes.

  4. Specialty tomatoes. 


Plants should not be crowded. Close planting tends to favor leaf diseases and development of smaller fruit. At the same time there must be room to work along the rows and the plants open enough to allow light to penetrate and air to move through the plants. The optimum space per plant is between three and four plants per sq. metre of growing area, and if rows are 30cm wide then the spacing per plant is 45cm or 23,000 plants per hectare with aisle widths of 900 mm in the greenhouse. The density of planting may be increased in spring to give 30,000 plants per hectare of shed.

Fruit Development

Fruit color development is also temperature sensitive, the best red color forms when the average daily temperatures are 18degrees C to 24degrees C. Yellowness increases as temperatures rises above 26 – 29 degrees C. If the temperature rises above 40degrees C, the mechanism for producing the red pigment is destroyed. The affected areas on these fruit are yellow or sun burnt. When the fruit is maturing it is best to reduce the amount of watering to minimize leaf spot damage, as well as fruit damage such as star cracks. Restricting watering also helps to improve the fruits’ keeping qualities.


All produce should be suitably mature when harvested. Maturity must not be confused with ripeness. Maturation can only take place on the vine, whereas ripening (fruit softening and color development) can continue on or off the vine.During vine ripening, sugars, acids and other flavors move into the fruit and the texture is improved. Tomatoes are ready for harvesting about three months after they are transplanted. Optimal color development for tomatoes occurs between 15 – 21 degrees C.

Tomatoes are harvested for the local market at the “breaker” stage which is when the blossom end shows a pink coloring. If you are supplying distant markets the fruit should be green but mature, i.e. the seeds will be fully developed and surrounded by jelly-like flesh that has just started to color, and the fruit surface is a light green color. In warmer weather fruit will need to be picked about two to three times per week; under cooler conditions fruit my be picked less frequently. The stems should be trimmed flush with the top of the fruit to prevent bruising during storage and transit.


Capsicums also called “peppers and chilies” are a rich source of Vitamin C and Vitamin A. Green capsicums and red chilies have very high levels of Vitamin A; red capsicums are very high in ascorbic acid (Vitamin C). They are a warm season vegetable, requiring a relatively long frost-free growing period for maximum production and perfect for growing in a “tunnel farming” type of operation.


During the last ten years continental cucumbers have grown in acceptance from being a novelty vegetable to a major vegetable crop in a number of areas. They are ideal for tunnel farming type of operations. The techniques used for hydroponic cucumber production often involve a poly-house – tunnel. This will protects the plants from rain, wind, hail, extreme temperatures etc.


Lettuce is an indispensable part of most salads. It is a summer flowering plant which produces vegetative growth in the cooler months and flowers under conditions of long, warm days. In hot dry weather or when the plant is under stress the plant is inclined to run to seed. The gap between peak maturity and starting to run to seed may be as soon as one week. It is therefore very important to know exactly when to harvest to achieve high quality, well-developed lettuce. We can help in various aspects of setting up a profitable farming operation including farming plans, farming marketing plans etc.


The major factors that influence plant growth are the interaction of the plants genetic makeup and the environment. The grower has very little control over the genetics of the plant but he can exercise some control over the environment. Most growers show no originality when looking to provide protection to their crops. They tend to move from growing outdoors without any protection to poly-houses which fully enclose their crop.


The first stage in protecting crops is the use of a windbreak. The material used should allow air to pass through it and simply reduce the velocity of the wind. The barrier must be high enough and strong enough to do its job effectively. Many lettuce growers build windbreaks 7m or more in height, using commercial wind break fabric meshing. Other growers plant trees and bushes to reduce the effects of the prevailing winds.

Rain and Hail

Thew next stage is providing protection from rain and hail. This allows the grower to work with a degree of comfort and at the same time prevents the nutrient solution from being diluted or changed, resulting in crop damage. Many lettuce growers have installed clear plastic covers 5-6 metres above the crops, in the form of a pitched roof.

Temperature Control

In areas where frosts or low temperatures occur, full enclosures such as poly-houses (tunnels)  can be used to help maintain better growing temperatures. However, a problem with poly – houses is that humidity tends to increase and fungal diseases may be encouraged. Moisture condensation inside the poly-house can also lead to water droplets falling on the plants, particularly flowers, as soon as the shed starts to warm up in the morning.

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